Theof many smartnesses smartness between "kinds", rather than seeing smartness as lorded over by a single broad skill. Howard Gardner put forth this in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Beholding of Many Smartnesses. By the beholding, a smartness must fulfill eight hallmarks:
- fitness for brain asideness by brain damage,
- place in ,
- of core undertakings,
- openness to "encoding" ( uttering),
- an unsame building forthstride,
- the living of , and other outstanding folk,
- mindlore, and from
- upholding from findings.
Gardner put forth eight skills that he held to meet these hallmarks:
- innerselflike, and
He later meant to say thatand smartness may also be worthy of inholding.
Although the undershedding between smartnesses has been set out in great, Gardner is against telling learners apart to bestevened smartnesses. Gardner holds that his beholding should "empower learners", not betighten them to one kind of learning. Gardner says that a smartness is "a living-mindly fitness to forework knowledge that can be turned on in a folkloric setting to solve worries or craft ware that is worthy in a folklore."
Many of Gardner's "smartnesses" are bond with the g building block, supporting the understanding of a single, lording over kind of smartness. To a 2006 study, each of the doms put forth by Gardner took in a blend of g, mind skills other than g, and, sometimes, non-mindly skills or innerself belongings.