Two books by same author:

1) How We'd Talk if the English had WON in 1066. 266 pages, goes from easy to harder in five steps. Link is:

First published 2009, updated in 2011 (and covers much more than Eldsay English of 1999).

2) Hastings 1066 - Words We'd Wield if We'd Won

Some Highlights from: Eldsay English Edit

New Life for Old English Words Edit

This book is out of print (1999), but these slightly adapted highlights are given here with leave from the publisher, Joseph Biddulph and author, David Cowley.

Eldsay English; Background. Edit

This book covered (amongst other things) the results of research - "throughseeking" - into words which were formerly found in English, but were lost as a result of the Norman Conquest; Looking through Old English words, we find that there are some that make more sense than the words we use today for the same concepts. This is because English now uses much material from Latin or French, instead of words with roots in Old English. To understand why this should be so, we must look back in history. Before the Conquest, Anglo-Saxon England had a standard written English (Old English) which was an official medium.

This very expressive written tongue thrived at a time when most Western European learning and writing was in Latin. After the conquest, Latin quickly came to be used instead of English for official purposes. French became important officially after about 1150. English thus lost her position in writing and "high" society, and when she started to reassert herself around 1400, we find many French or Latin-derived words being used instead of native ones.

The pressure we may feel even today to use French and Latin words instead of good OE-derived ones is a leftover from these times; f.e. Commence instead of start or begin, received instead of had or got; there is nothing culturally higher or more sophisticated in using the "posh" words. Many of our native English words were lost, but it is still possible to work out how they could have developed in Modern English, by analogy with words that have lived on. The "Englishing English Project" has worked on hundreds of such words. Many of these can be found below.

Some make good sense without explanation, such as afterfollower, fullwork, likeworthy, forelook (=preview) and oathbreach (= Perjury), whilst others just sound good; f.e. Frimdy (curious, inquisitive), steerless (profligate). With these "new" words from OE, the book breaks new ground, and they are given with the hope that some may find their way back into everyday Modern English. Meanings of words change, and this has been reflected in the lists; if some of the words suggest meanings more natural and obvious than those given here, then all well and good, if they get to be used! Other than making English even more expressive, re-adoption of good English words would also lead to other benefits:- in an ever more standardised world, it could help foster better appreciation of some things which are culturally unique to England, in positive ways. A better knowledge of our own tongue's history and worth could lead to greater understanding of the plight of other languages, some of which are under pressure/ threat. Hopefully this will help raise interest in the idea of broadening English and above all help those who would like to begin using some of the words. They belong to English and deserve to live, but can only do so if we use them!

Note on abbreviations. Some abbreviations based on spoken English, rather than the Latin-based terms which are strangely used so often in writing:

a.s.f. (and so forth) for etc. (etcetera). f.e. (for example) for e.g. (exemplia gratia). t.i. (that is) for i.e. (id est).

Native/ Loanword Choices in Today's English. Edit

If we care about English, we can already choose to use more native - ourlandish - words every day! Here are a few (with the most English form first):

- Choose right settings needed for work in hand = Select correct settings required for current working.

- Let brake off before backing = Disengage brake prior to reversing.

- Inside leaks are likely to stay unseen = Internal leaks probably remain invisible.

- Outwardly much like kinds made before 1970s = Externally very similar to types manufactured pre-1970s.

- It is hard to see talks starting straight away = It is difficult to envisage negotiations commencing immediately.

- One in four buyers came back yearly = One quarter of purchasers returned annually.

- If address is wrong, fill in slip over and send to, or call us on = If address is incorrect complete slip on reverse and return to, alternatively phone us on....

- Overseeing handout of... = Supervising distribution of...

2. New Wordlist, from Old English words: Edit

In this wordlist an updated word is given first, followed by its meaning, and thirdly the O.E. source-word.

  • Note; Wordlist gives suggested meanings for new words - not always the exact meaning of the O.E. word from which they come. Having been worked out for potential usefulness, it would not be practical for modernised words always to have the precise meaning of their O.E. forebears (many of today's English words changed in meaning over the years).

O.E. Pronunciation: æ=a (short), þ and ð=th, sc=sh, cg=j, f=v (sometimes), g=y (very rough guide!)

"New" - Modern English - Old English .

A Edit

abgo - encircle, go around/ about - ymbgan

ablie - lie around - ymblicgan

abwind - envelop (by winding round) - ymbwinden

acraft - devise - acræftan

afear - terrify, make afraid - afæran

afterfollow - succeed - æfterfolgian

afterfollowedness - sequel - æfterfylgednes

afterfollower - successor - æfterfylgere

aftergoer - descendant - æftergenga

aftergoingness - posterity - æftergengnes

afterwardness - posterity - æfterwardnes

aftnewing - restoration - eftniwung

alease - redeem, save - aliesan

aleaseness - redemption - alesnis

aliken - compare - anlician

anleth - face - andwlita

anew - to renew - edniwian

anewed - renewed - edneowe

angbreast - asthma - angbreost

angsomely - painfully - angsumlice

angsomeness - distress, pain - angsumnes

applewine - cider - æppelwin

atgo - approach

atsake - deny - ætsacen

awayen - repudiate - awægan

ayewhither - in all directions - æghwider

B Edit

backboard - port-side, larboard - bæcbord

bebid - order, command - bebod

bedrink - absorb - bedrincan

befare - travel round - befaran

befasten - apply, entrust, use - befæstan

befold - enfold - befolden

begang - circuit - begong

bego - go around - began

behideness - conealment - behydnes

beholdness - observation - behealdnes

behovely - necessary

belaugh - deride - behlyhhan

belean - restrain, dissuade - belean

bepeach - deceive, delude - bepæcan

beride - ride round - beridan

berow - row round - berowan

beshow - exhibit - besceawian

beshower - exhibitor - besceawere

beshowing - exhibition - besceawung

besink - submerge - besincan

besit - occupy - besittan

besorrow - regret - besargian

besorrowing - compassion - besargung

bettering - improvement - beterung

bethink - to consider - beþencan

betrap - entrap - betræppan

bewarp - to pervert - beweorpan

bewend - to convert, turn - bewend

bewixset - interposed

bework - to construct - bewyrccan

bewrite - copy out - bewritan

birther - fetus

blitheness - mirth, joy - bliðnes

bookcraft - book production, design a.s.f. - boccræft

bookhouse - library - bookhus

borough - city

borrowbreach - failure to repay loan - borgbryce

breastwhelm - powerful emotion, grief - breostwylm

bridegift - dowry - brydgifu

busen - example

C Edit

candletree - candelabrum - candeltreow

D Edit

dearworth - precious - deorwurþ

dearworthness - preciousness, treasure - deorwyrþness

deemer/ deemster - a judge (Manx law has deemsters) - dema

E Edit

earthkin - human race - eorðcyn

eatgiver - host at a meal - ætgiefa

elddom - age - ealddom

elderborough - metropolis

eldfather - grandfather - ealdfæder

eldmother - grandmother - ealdmodor

eldright - ancient right, tradition - ealdriht

eldsay - tradition (spoken) - ealdgesegen

endbirthly - in order, in succession, orderly manner - endebyrdlic

endbirthness - order, series, succession, arrangement, degree - endebyrdnes

endlessness - infinity, eternity - endeleasnes

endspeak - epilogue - endespæc

enoughsome - sufficient, abundant - genyhtsum

enoughsomeness - sufficiency, abundance - genyhtsumnis

ettin - giant - eotan

evenlatcher - immitator - efenlæcan

evenlatching - immitation - efenlæcung

evenliness - equality - efenlicnes

evenlotter - equal sharer, partaker - efenhlytta

evennight - equinox - efniht

evenold - contemporary - efneald

evensorrowing - compassion - efensargung

evensorry - compassionate - efensarig

evilwill(ed) - malevolent - yfelwille

evenworth - equivalent - efenweorð

F Edit

fakedeed - facendæd

fakeful - deceitful - facenful

fakeless - without deceit - facenleas

fakely - facenlic

farness - distance - feornes

feedness - nourishment - fednes

fewness - paucity - feanes

fieldly - rural - feldlic

folkfree - uninhabited - folcfrig

folkland - common land - folcland

folkly - public, popular, populous - folclic

folkright - human/common right, generally accepted - folcriht

folkish - of the people, secular - folcisc

forbow - decline (turn down) - forbugan

forbuilding - encouragement - forbylding

forcouth - notorious, despicable - forcuð

fordim - to obscure - fordimman

fordeem - prejudice, prematurely deem - fordeman

fordeemer - accuser - fordemend

fordo - destroy, spoil, ruin - fordon

forebody - thorax, chest - foranbodig

forebusy - to preoccupy - forebisegian

forechoose - prefere - foreceosan

forecome - to block, prevent move/ action, prevent - forecuman

foregang - precede - foregangan

foregearing - preparation - foregearwung

foregoer - predecessor - foregenga

forehouse - porch - forehus

forelook - preview - foreloc

foresay - proclaim - foresecgan

foreset - propose - forsettan

foresetness - proposition - foresetnes

foreshieldness - protection - forescieldnes

foreshowing - a preview - foresceawung

forestand - block, prevent - forestandan

forestep - precede - foresteppan

forethoughtful - prudent - foreðancful

forewriteness - prescription - forewritennes

forfare - obstruct, block - forfaran

forgively - excusable - forgifenly

forgoedness - abstention - forgægednes

forharry - ravage - forhergian

forharrying - devastation, raid - forheriung

forhave - abstain, relinquish - forhabban

forhaveness - abstinence - forhæfnes

forlead - to seduce - forlæden

forlet - relinquish, abandon - forlætan

forletness - remission, abandonment - forletnis

forlie - perjure - forleogan

forride - intercept with vehicle/ horse a.s.f. - forridan

forrot - corrode - forrotian

forsakeness - rejection, abandonment - forsæcennes

forshape - transform - forscieppan

forspeak - favour, advocate - forspæc

forspeaker - sponsor, advocate - forspeca

forspeech - advocacy - forspæc

forspend - squander - forspendan

forspoken - advocated - foresprecan

forstand - block, prevent, obstruct - forstandan

forswey - ignore, pass in silence - forswigian

forthbear - produce - forþberan

forthbuild - encouragement

forthbring - accomplish, achieve - forðbrengan

forthen - promote

forthing - advancement

forthfatheren - paternal

forthfroming - departure - forðfromung

forthly - advanced - forþlic

forthspell - declaration

forthway - departure - forþweg

forthshaft - future - forðgesceaft

forthstepping - advance - forðstæpping

forthyearnful - impetuous - forðgeorn

fortrueing - presumption - fortruwung

forwardness - progress - forðweardnes

forwork - forfeit, ruin, undo/ destroy effort, labour/ work - forwyrcan

forworth - be ruined - forweorðan

forworthness - devaluation - forweorðenes

foryield - recompense, requite - forgieldan

frameful - constructive, positive - fremful

framefully - constructively, positively - fremfulic

frimdy - curious, inquisitive - frymdig

frith - peace - friþ

fromfare - departure - framfær

frithstow - reseve (f.e.wildlife) - friþstowe

fullframe - to complete - fullfremman

fullframed - completed - fulfremed

fullframedly - completely - fullfremedlice

fullframedness - completion - fulfremednes

fullgo - complete (such as duration of time) - fullgan

fullsomeness - abundance - fulsumnes

fullwork - complete (such as a task, construction, action) - fulwyrcan

G Edit

gatheredness - abscess - gegaderednes

gatheringly - collectively - gadrigendlic

gearingness - preparation - gearwungnes

guestlithe - hospitable - giestliðe

guestlitheness - hospitality - giestliðnes


harmshare - punishment - hearmscearu

Harvestmonth - September - Hærfesmonað

haveless - destitute - hafenleas

headand - captain

headly - principal, capital - heafodlic

hean - abject, despised - hean

heanly - base, despicable, low - heanlic

healness - salvation - hælnes

hearsome - attentive - hiersum

hearsomeness - attentiveness - hiersumnes

heavytime - oppressive - hefigtyme

hinderness - hindrance - hindernes

highberg - mountain - héahbeorg

hipboneache - sciatica - hypebanece

hoardvat - coffer - hordfæt

holdness - observance - healdnes

holdsome - economical - healdsum

holdsomeness - preservation, restraint, custody - healdsumnes

hotheartedness - ardour - hatheortnes

huebright - brightly coloured - hiwbeorht

hueless - colourless - hiwleas

hungerbitten - starvation


idleyearnful - indolent - idelgeorn

inbequeath - to inculcate - inbecqeðan

indrink - imbibe - indrincan

infare - incursion - infare

infleshness - incarnation - inflescnes

ingoer - visitor - ingenga

ingoing - entrance - ingang

inheaten - to inflame - inhætan

inlead - introduce - inlædan

inlighten - enlighten - inlihtan

inlightness - enlightenment - inlihtnes

inly - internally - inlic

inning - content - innung

inset - institute - insettan

insetness - institution, regulation - insetnes

inshowing - inspection - insceawung

inthink - intention - ingeþanc

inwitness - conscience, consciousness - ingewitness

inwriting - inscription - inwritting


kinly - pertaining to family/ kin - cynlic


landfee - ground-rent - londfeoh

landfolk - native- londfolc

lessness - minority - leasnes

likeworthy - acceptable, nice, likeable - licwerþe

likeworthily - licwyrþlice

likeworthiness - licwyrþnes

longsome - tedious - langsum

longsomely - tediously - langsumlic

longsomeness - tediousness - langsumnes

M Edit

manifoldly - (from manifold=multiply/ multiple)- manigfealdlic

manifoldness - multiplicity, abundance, complexity - manigfealdnes

midfastness - moderation - midfæstnes

midmost - most central - midmest

middlest - most central (superlative of middle) - midlest

Midsummermonth - June - Midsumermonað

mightly - possible - mihtelic

mildheart(ed)ness - (meaning obvious) - mildheortnes

mindlyness - rememberance - myndiglicnes

mindworth - worth remembering/ minding - gemyndwyrðe

misbirth - miscarriage - misbyrd

misborn - degenerate - misboren

misdo - do incorrectly/wrongly, transgress - misdon

mislikeness - dissimilarity, difference - mislicneyss

moonly - lunar - monlic

moonsick - lunatic - monseoc

moory - abounding in moors - morig

mouthroof - palate - muðhrof

mousehawk - buzzard - mushafoc

muchness - size - micelnes


needly - necessary - nydlic

needness - necessity - nydnes

O Edit

oathbreach - perjury - aðbryce

offdo - remove - ofdon

offgive - relinquish, release to, abandon - ofgiefan

offlet - relinquish - oflætan

offthink - digress - ofþyncan

oldness - old age - ealdnyss

onbeload - inflict on - onbelædan

onbeshowing - examination - onbesceawung

onbide - expect, await - onbidan

onehood - unity

onfind - discover, notice - onfindan

onfoundness - experience - onfundennys

onget - notice, perceive - ongietan

ongetful - perceptive - andgietful

ongetfully - perceptively - andgitfullice

ongetless - lacking perception - andgietless

ongetness - perception - ongietennes

onlease - release - onlysan

onlighten - illuminate - onlihtan

onshot - attack (f.e. by shooting, also spoken) - onscyte

onsong - incantation - onsang

onthereto - in addition, additionally - on þærto

ourlandish - of this country - urelandisc

outgoing - exit, exodus - utgong

outkind - extraneous - utacund

overfare - travel over - overfaran

overfindness - experiment - oferfundenness

overflowness - superfluity - oferflownes

overlive - survive - oferlibban

overlove - (meaning obvious) - oferlufu

overmoodyness - (meaning obvious) - ofermodignes

overwork - superstructure - ofergeweorc

ownwilled - agnes willan

P Edit

plight - danger

plightful - dangerous


readly - expedient - rædlic

reeve - official - rieff

righting - correction - rihting

rightwise- just, in a correct way - rihtwis

righwiseness - justice, righteousness - rihtwisnyss

roomheart(ed) - generous - rumheort

rootfast - firmly established - rotfæst

roughmood - (meaning obvious) - hreohmod


sealy - maritime, marine - sælic

scathe - injure - sceaððan

scatheful - injurious - sceaðful

scatheness - injury - sceaððignes

searim - coast - særima

seenly - visible - gesiendlic

seldly - rare - seldlic

selfdom - independence - selfdom

selfly - egotistic - selflic

selfmurder(ing) - suicide - selfmyrðrung

selfmurderer - one who takes own life - selfmyrðra

setness - foundation, composition, settlement, arrangement - setness

shadewise - rational - sceadwis

shadewiseness - discretion, discrimination - sceadwisnes

shandful - disgraceful - scandful

shandliness - disgrace - scandlicnes

shandly - scandlic

shielder - protector scildend

shieldness - protection - scildnes

shoting - missile - scotung

sidely - descrete - sidelic

slithe - cruel, savage - sliðen

smalling - atrophy - smalung

smathinkly - in detail - smeaðanclic

sorrowly - miserable - sorglic

sorrowleath (n) - lament - sorgleoð

sparstone - gypsum - spærstan

stead - place, location - stede

steerer - director - steorend

steerless - profligate, out of control - steorleas

steerlessly - profligately, unmanageably - steorleaslic

steerspeech - guidance (spoken) - steorsprec

stevven - voice - stemn

stirness - commotion - styrenes

stovebath - sauna - stofbæð

suchness - nature, reality, quality - swelcnes

sunderfreedom - privilege - sundorfreodom

sundering - division - ásyndrung

sunderly - special - sundorlic

sunly - solar - sunlic

T Edit

thankworthy - acceptable, pleasing - þoncwyrðe

thoughting - consideration, deliberation - þeahtung

thrithely - excellent - þryþlic

throughdrench - to saturate - þurhdrencan

throughholed - pierced, holed - þurhholod

throughlooking - perusal - þurhlocung

throughseek - to research - þurhsecan

throughwone - persist, continue - þurhwunian

tokening - significant

trueless - false - treowleas

truelessness - falsehood - treowleasnes

twofoldly - doubly - twifealdlic

twofoldness - duplication - twifealdnes

twowordy - ambiguous - twiwyrdig


unbearinglike - intolerable - unaberendlic

unbefought - uncontested - unbefohten

underbear - support - underberan

underdriveness - subjection - underdrifenness

underget - perceive - undergietan

underseek - investigate - undersecan

underthink - meditate - underðencan

unforcouth - not notorious, without dishonour - unforcuþ

unframeful - negative - unfremful

unfrith - hostility - unfriþ

unfulframing - incompletion - unfulfremming

unhold - disloyal - unhold

unlored - ignorant - ungelæred

unmightly - impossibile - unmihtlic

unmightlyness - impossibility - unmihtilicnys

unrightwise - unjust - unrihtwis

unrightwiseness - injustice, iniquity - unrehtwisnis

unstillness - movement, disturbance - unstilness

undtidely - unreasonable

untholing - intolerable

untodealed -undivided

untrimness - (infirmity) state of not being trim - untrymnes

unwinsome - unpleasant - unwinsum

unwinsomeness - unpleasantness - unwinsumnes

upariseness - resurrection - uparisnes

upgoing - ascent - upgang


wedbreach - divorce, adultery - wedbryce

welwilling - (meaning obvious)- welwillende

welwillingly - (meaning obvious)- welwillendlic

welwillingness - (meaning obvious)- welwillendnes

whelm - surge, fervour - wylm

whilewendly - temporary, transitory - hwilwendlic

widegoing - itinerant, widely travelled - widgenge

wilsomeness - state of being voluntary - wilsumnes

winsomeness - pleasure, delight - wynsumnes

witherchoose - reject, change choice, deselect - wiðerceosan

witherling - opponent, adversary - wiðerling

withersake - adversary - wiþersaca

witherspeaker - contradictor - wiðersprecend

witherward - contrary, opposite - wiðerweard

witherwardly - contrarily, inimically - wiðerweardlic

witherwardness - opposition - wiðerweardnes

withgo - vanish, disappear - wiðgan

withleadness - abduction by leading off - wiþlædniss

withsake - renounce - wiðsacan

withsay - to renounce - wiðsecgan

withsetness - opposition - wiðsetnes

woetoken - portent, sign of misfortune - weatacn

wordful - fluent - wordful

wordhoard - vocabulary

wordlock - words fitting together to make sense, logic - wordloc

wordlore - etymology - wordlar

wordmark - definition - wordgemearc

wordwinsome - affable, happy to talk - wordwynsum

wordwrestle - debate, argue, discuss - wordum wrixlan

workcraft - mechanics - weorccræft

workness - operation - weorcnes

worldshame - great or public disgrace - woroldscamu

worthful - valuable - weorðful

Y Edit

yearnful - full of yearning - geornful

yearnfulness - state of being yearnful - geornfulnes

yearnfully - geornfulic -

yelpword - boast - gielpword

yetsing - avarice, covetousness, desire - gitsung

yondfare - travel to a place away - geondfaran

yondlighten - illuminate - geondlyhtan

yondsend - distribute - geondsendan

yondshow - reveal, open to scrutinization - geondsceawian

yondthink - contemplate - geondþencan

youthhood - adolescence - geoguþhad

A Forshaping.

The following shows some of the words from the book. It also has barely any un-English words, as native English - that is ourlandish words, bywords and sayings have been chosen where possible, throughout. I hope that the topic will also get some minds thinking!!

Whereas most folk in England lived on (and lived-off, foodwise) the land at one time, from about two hundred years ago onward there was a shift to living and working in towns. This has gone hand in hand with the forshapings of the way of life over this time. Few folk live and work on the land today - we now rather tend to toil with thoughts and writing - wordwrestling inside rooms, in buildings, in towns - instead of toiling with our hands in fields and woods as our forebears did until such a short time ago. And, rather than walking to our work, most of us spend much time wayfaring along busy roads before we can even start (this can be angsome to many, as well as being dear onthereto).
But, to be fair, there are many things about our way of life today that are good:- more of us overlive to a good oldness, we nearly all have enough food, clothing and at least the wealth to buy those things that we really need to live. Also, our children can learn many thrithely things and are mainly well looked after. And yet, there are some folk who find that they underget feelings of angsomeness from the stirness and unstillness of today's living/ way of life. It may well be that there is a rise in these feelings, and more and more are thinking this way.
It seems to go hand in hand with this that many of us find ourselves besorrowing the loss of our links with the land. Though some would be quick to say we had our heads in the clouds, it is nevertheless the dream of many thousands to in some way get back to the land, earn our living on it (or at least something) and to forlet some of the angsomeness of town life...indeed, living on a smallholding and growimg enough to eat is called 'the good life' such is the ongetness of this way of life in everyday speech. Though there are those who are yearnful for the good life, most would like to have the best of both worlds, that is by keeping most of those things that we do like about today's town way of life!! Whilst we like the good things about today's way of life, most folk will not put up with less than they already have - if anything they want more and more - this being folks' suchness, some would say. If so, then there is a somewhat dim forthshaft awaiting us. So-called 'Green' thinking is that the more we take from the earth, the more we fordo her suchness. There are many bad things happening today which are through man's greed and carelessness - woetokens for the forthshaft - unless things are done to stop the worsening of the ozone hole, melting icecaps, rising seas a.s.f. Lest it seems we are loosing our way by going off the 'yearning for getting back to the land' we had started to talk about, it may rather be that the two things are linked. That is, the yearing for the 'good life' can itself be seen as being 'green', going with the mindset that seeks a more thrithely, caring forthshift for us all. There is a kind of folkstiring towards green thinking, though maybe it is as yet rather more in the mind than in deeds and doing! As has been already said about the 'good life', there are a great deal of folk who would say that it is only a head-in-the-clouds dream. Others may answer that if you have no dreams then you may never get anywhere anyway, or if you do others down for having dreams then you are wrong.
Rather than get too much into feelings and the mindsets of the sundry shades of thinking on this matter, it would be a good thing to think carefully about it, and try to weigh it up thoroughly in our own mind before we choose which side (if any!) we want to be on. Firstly, it should be said that there are many folk who have upped and awayed to the green fields, woods, hills and dales, forletting their former lives in towns and looking for a more likeworthy life. How have they fared? Some are glad that they have made the shift to that other way of life - or rather other ways - for these folk come from all walks of life and fit into life away from the towns in all sorts of ways. (And let it not be forgotten that those that have wealth and big houses in or near to towns can buy more to get started in a new way of life.)
What line of work one is into is also a big thing. But some folk have not been so happy, and found the life to be harder than they had thought it would be; they have been glad to get back to the towns (it is always wise to bear in mind the likely hardships one may find in a 'grass is greener over there' world!). It would be hard to choose one way or the other until one had lived both lives, or at least talked to folk who had, and maybe read as much as one could about these things. But for those who are frimdy to learn more and want to at least have go at life on the land, it is sad to say that many find they are forstood by ties of work, loved ones/ kin, lack of wealth and suchlike things.
A lack of openings and the kind of know-how needed to get to grips with running a smallholding or following a craft to earn one's living seem to stand in the way too - even if one is not bound by those ties above. So one of the best things that could be done to help would be to work towards making those openings and giving folk the choice of once more having an eldright to live on and off the land, so to speak. Some of the giant farms could be bought by Whitehall, and instead of forspending to grow too much food or on 'setaside' land where no food is grown, the land could be dealt out into smallholdings, big enough for two, three, four a.s.f. folk to live happily off. These folk should first be taught the ins and outs of running smallholdings in a thorough way, so that they know what they are letting themselves in for! Those who like it could find their lives foreshaped. The land would hold more folk, and new work would be made (this could be a great thing for some folk who cannot get work in towns, but dearly want to do something worthwhile with their lives, are bright, and more than willing to work hard). If the above looks too much like a dream, then it may help to bear this in mind: something like this has been started in the last few years in Ireland, and how well that has gone does bode well for the forthshaft. Maybe, if enough folk were likeminded in England, then something likeworthy and thrithely could be set off here too. I would forspeak forthway from some of the set ways of thinking we have about how we should live our working lives. We need to take the best of the old ways of life and the best of the new, whilst looking after our home, the earth. If we can do so, then we shall see a needful forshaping for which our children and their afterfollowers shall thank us.


May frimdy folk find forshaped forthshaft, From blithe, lively, thrithely forebears' speech;

In former times, beleaned by and by, Winsome words - which worthy were.

Forlet her not - fair folkright: English tongue - ourlandish eldright!

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