Staff A of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
a cappella avb/adj singing loneglee, mouthglee, mouthly
a la carte adj - by-the-list
a la mode adj trendy, running, (beef) cooked with wine nowen, (beef) wine-stewed, (pie) with ice salve
aardvark n ant bear, ant-bear, antbear earthpig, earthswine, earthfarrow (cognate)
abacus n - reckonboard (cf. NHG Rechenbrett)
abandon (non-Germanic prefix) vb

shed, forgo, forsake (Barnes)
give up, forget, let go of

forban (cf. O.Frank. *ban (bor. OF à bandon), cf. OE bannan. In Anglish, the calque of abandon, at ban, would mean "at jurisdiction," making it a false friend), forlet (UK dialectal ~ cf. OE forlǣtan, Fr. ferlitte, Du. verlaten, Nw. forlate, NHG verlassen) of-give, up-give, forleave, forlese, unget

abandon (non-Germanic prefix) n 1: wantonness, recklessness

2: forsaking

1:overgive, with-ban


abandonment (non-Germanic prefix & suffix) n forsaking, forgoing shedding, forbanning
abandoned (non-Germanic prefix) adj/vb left behind, forsaken, forgotten, forgone forbanned, forlet, forleft, forleased, ungotten
abase vb cheapen, warp; shame, sink, belittle, lay low, fell, drop unar, anether
abash vb faze, ashame -
abate vb drain away, drop off, dwindle, ease, ebb, fall away, lessen, let up, lower, shrink, wane -
abattoir n slaughterhouse -
abbess n mother overmother
abbreviation n short for, shorthand offshortening, forshortening, shortening, shortshape, shortstaving
abdicate vb step down, step aside from -
abdomen n - kite, quith (<OE cwiþ), riff (<OE hrif), bouk (Eng., calque of all Ger. speeches)
abduct vb kidnap, steal, lead away, offlead, nab -
aberrant n black-sheep, weird -
aberration n freak, way-outness unfollowing
abet vb goad, spur, hearten fuse (<ME fusen)
abhor vb hate, loathe, mislike -
ability n skill, might, craft, bent, ken, cunning, knack
in-born: mother-wit
formay (cf. Du. vermogen)
abject adj low heanly (<OE heanlic), downcast (Barnes)
abjure vb forswear, take back, unsay, withdraw swear off (cf. NHG abschwören), aftercwethe
ablactate vb wean -
ablation n offtaking, offferrying -
ablative adj - atbraidingly, shiftfall (<Ic. skiftafall)
ablaut n - offlloud
able adj fit, skilled

dow, stand (cf. Dn, Nw, NHG)

-able sfx -worthy, -some, -bearing, -ly, -wende

-endly/-ingly, -cannish, -canny, -worth, (<OE -wierþe), -bear, -beare (cf. OE -bære, Fr. -ber, NHG -bar)

able to phr can, may, to be canny enough, to be cunning enough, up to dow to, skilled to
ablution n washing, cleansing furbing
abnegate vb forgo, forswear -
abnormal adj amiss, unwonted, odd unmean, unshapely (Barnes)
abolish vb end, let die out, die off, stop;
quench, black out, stamp out, sweep away, wipe out

fordo, forend, adiley (<OE ādīlegian), offship (cf. NHG abschaffen)

abominable adj awful, dreadful, evil, loathsome, sickening shandful (<OE scandful, cf. NGH/Du. schandvoll), slithely, besmearful, wargedly (<OE)
aboriginal adj inborn, dwelt before firstfolkish, orfolkly (see or- )
aborigine n - orfolk (OE or 'origin') firstfolk, beginner-folk, (see or- )
abort vb lay off, call off, end -
abortion n misbirth forbirthing, awaywarpness (<OE)
abound vb brim, teem, overflow -
abrasion n graze, scrape -
abridge vb cut back, forshorten, cut  littlen (<OE)
abrupt adj anon, at once, quick, fast, steep shorn (<OE scoren)
abscess n swelling atterboil (cf. NHG Eiterbeule, Du. etterbuil)
abscond vb break out, run off, steal away -
absence n

time off, lack, needfulness, want, dearth

offwardness (<OE)
absent adj missing, wanting, out offward (<OE)
absenteeism n how often out offwardness
absent-mindedness n daydreaming, flighty, thoughtless, unheeding, unmindful, woolgathering -
absinthe n wormwood drink -
absolute adj unanswering, answering to none, God-king, outright, utter, full, rank -
absolutely adv fully, wholly, dead -
absolve vb forgive offloosen (Barnes)
absorb vb drink, soak, sop, soak in, soak up, suck up, take up; grip; burn, drain, draw down, play out bedrink (<OE bedrincan), up-soak, forsoak (Barnes)
abstain (from) vb forbear (Barnes), forego, withhold, hold back, swear off -
abstinence n - forbearing, forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes)
abstract vb withdraw, take from, pull out, seethe out -
abstract adj dreamlike, foggy, floating fallenly, unbodied
abstract n withdrawal, outline outpulling, outdraught, offdrawal (abstraction)
abundance n wealth, lot fullsomeness (<OE)
abundant adj teeming, swarming, overflowing, fulsome, rife, fat, thick, awash -
abuse vb scathe, mishandle, smite, strike, harm, wound hean (<OE hienan), smittle, misbrook
abysmal adj lowest, at bottom, deep, hellish, in the hole, hopeless, dreadful, fathomless, bottomless netherly, unfathomly
abyss hell, depth, ground, deep, pit, netherworld newel (<OE neowol), offground (cf. NGH. Abgrund, Du. Afgrond)
acacia n thorn tree, whistling thorn, wattle thornbloom, hookthorn
academia n - learnedom, loredom, frod (<OE), lorekeep, brainhall, highspire, bookborough, mindthralldom
academic or academik n/adj highbrow, book-learned, bookish moot, booksome, lorewise, mighty-brained
n: loreman
açaí n - koleberry
accede vb - agree: thware (<OE)
accelerate vb speed up, spur, quicken (Barnes) yare, swiften
acceleration n speeding up yareness, swifteness
accent n twang, drawl, sound tungfall (cf. Du. tongval ), word-strain (Barnes)
accept vb swallow, trust; bear, shoulder; intake (Barnes)

thave, thware (<OE þwarian 'to bring into agreement, make harmonious') ontake, onfang (<OE onfon)

acceptable adj all right, fair, good thwaringly, thewsome,

quemely (<OE cwēmlīċ)

access n doorway, gateway, key infare, ingoing, togang (<OE tōgang)
accessible adj at hand yea-fare, thuringly
accessory n - bykeeper, deedmate (Barnes)
accident n mishap; hap, luck, befall unfall (cf. NHG unfall) , hapliness (Barnes)
accidental adj unwitting fallenly, happensome (Barnes)
accommodation n underbringing (cf. NHG Unterbringung)
accompany vb go with, follow, see off

beglide (cf. Du. begeleiden, NHG begleiten), samodsithe (<OE samodsīðian)

accomplish vb phr fulfill, sow up, bring about, reach fulcome (<ME ful-cǒmen), fulbring (cf. NHG vollbringen)
accomplishment n bringing(s)-forth (Shakespeare)
accord n deal, meeting of minds thaving, thwaring
accordion n - bellowharp
according to adj as of, by, true to


nigh (cf. NHG nach), after, following (calque)
account n ledger, reckoning, log reckonbook, reckonreme (reme - number)
account of vb take of, witness (give) forof (on)
accountant n - teller (cf. Du. tal, NHG Zahle 'number')
accumulate vb heap, upheap, build up, gather up -
accumulation vb unheaping -
accurate adj right on, spot-on swotel (<OE sweotol)

narrowcore (calque of Du. nauwkeurig, narrow - core 'choice')

accusation noun bewraying (cf. Eng. bewrayment) -
accusative (case) adj - wrayingly (<OE wregendlic), end-case (Barnes), tholfall (cf. Ic. þolfall), whonefall (<OE hwone, the accusative of "hwæt", refer to German "wen" and "Wenfall")
accuse vb wray, guilt

atwite, fromtyghtle (<OE frumtyhtle, originally meaning first accusation)

falsely: forwray (<OE forwregan)

accustom vb wean, wean on, wean to onwone (Barnes)
accustomed adj wont, used to -
acephalous adj headless (Barnes) -
acetone n - sourghost
achieve vb - areach (cf. NHG erreichen)
achievement n - bringing(s)-forth (Shakespeare)
acid adj/n adj: sour n: sour
acne n - redmeal (OE mal 'spot')
aconite n wolfsbane -
acoustics n - dinlore
acquaint vb befriend, get to know ken (<OE cunnan (“to become acquainted with, to know”))
acquaintance n friend, neighbor, kith kenning
acquiesce vb bow thave (<OE)
acquire vb earn, foster, get, win beget (<OE), awin (<OE āwinnan)
acquisition n

windfall (unexpected)

acrobat n - stringtumb
acropolis n high town, upper town, show town highborough, highbury
across adv over thwarse, thweer, athwart (Barnes)
act n deed, work, play, behaving -
act vb do, work, behave, happen -
action n deed (Barnes), doing, work,
do (as, 'all talk and no do'), liveliness, behaving, happening
ishown (<OE ġescēon, cf. NHG Geschehen)


activate vb switch on -
active adj switched on, snell, deedy, mettlesome, springy; hopping, tied-up, unruly ongoing, doingsome (Barnes), doughty, sprack (Barnes)
activist n browbeater, henpecker, backer, upholder, fighter, diehard, wrangler, arm-bender, bully, busybody, blusterer -
actor/actress n player, showman showplayer [cf. NHG Schauspieler(in)]
actual adj sooth, soothfast, true new, nowly
actually adv indeed, truly, soothly, forsooth, truthfully, all in all, truth to tell, word for word workly, echtly (see echt), wittedly (<OE)
acupuncture n pinpricking nailhealing
acute adj sharp, high (Barnes), keen, honed; shrill (accent) swotel
A.D. adv in the year of our lord Y.L.
ad infinitum adv forevermore at eke, ekely, for eke, unto everness
adamant adj unyielding, unswayed, loud -
adaptable adj - onwending (cf. Du. aanwendbaar)
adapter n - eck-on, fayfitter
add vb fay, eke "fay to this wordbook!" reckon up, put on, onput (Barnes), at-eke (OE)
add up vb cast up, tally up -
addict n - soughtier (cf. NHG Süchtiger)
addicted adj - soughty (cf. NHG süchtig)
addiction n craving, yearning sought (<ME soght cf. NHG Sucht)
addition n faying togive
additional adj - bycoming (Du. bijkomend), coming by
additionally adv

again, also, besides, either, further, furthermore, likewise, moreover, then, too, withal, yet, over and above

eke (also)
address vb call, name, clip, bespeak at-speak, bequethe, hote
address n link sitline (<OE: asittan 'to live together'), callword
adept adj skillful, skilled, good, deft, cunning -
adequate adj right, even, fair, fit, befitting, becoming makeshift, make-do
adhere vb cling, stick, cleave to, follow, stand by at-cleave (<OE), oncleave (Barnes)
adherence to good morals n - thewfastness
adherent n follower, stalwart -
adiposis n overweight fat
adjacent adj near, next, neighboring, beside, by -
adjective n - mark-word (Barnes)
adjunct n helpmate, sidekick -
adjust vb set, fit, gear forstell (cf. NHG/Du. verstellen) (see stell)
admonish vb - formone (cf. Du. vermanen)
administer vb wield, deal, lot, begive  bewit
administration n dealing, shire, begiveness shiredom, shirecraft, rikedom, forwield, forwielding (cf. NHG verwaltung)
admiral n - fleethelm, fleetleader, fleetwielder (wielder < OE walda)
admiralty n - fleetwieldery, fleetdom
admire vb look up to bewonder, belook
admission n doorway thwaring
admit vb

let in, acknowledge, welcome, greet, take in

confess: own up

andet (<OE andhetan), give to (cf. NHG zugeben, Du. toegeven)

confess: beknow (Eng.)

sense to join a club, society, admit to hospital, etc: instep, onsend, tosend, intake

admonish vb chide, forewarn, upbraid, warn tell off, man (<OE manian)
adolescence n youthhood, growing up teenhood
adolescent n youth, youngling, youngster, teen -
adopt vb take on, follow; take in,
mother, rear, foster,
bring up, take care of
adoption n fostering intaking
adorable adj comely, lovely, looksome, dear, sweet -
adorn vb bedight, bedeck, yare, trim, bedizen

breen (<OE berenian)

with precious stones: astean (<OE āstæna āstænan)

adrenaline n - thringweald
adulation n - hallowing
adult n grown-up fulwaxener (see Eng. waxen), waxen
adulthood n - waxenhood
adultery n - wedlock breach, wedbreach, bedswerving. 2. forlairness (<OS Farlegarnessi; see OE leġer)
adumbrate vb outline -
advance vb make inroads, forward, further, go (on)

trans. put forth

forthgo, forespring, wade on
advance n inroads, headway; breakthrough
in advance: beforehand
forthgoing, forespring
advanced adj quick, ahead, higher, better, hard, tough, skilfull, clever, manifold, knotted, snarled forthstridden, foresprang
advancement n furthering
advancing adj striding, forespringing -
advantage n boon, foredeal, high ground, upper-hand boot, behoof, upside
advantageous adj helpful, worthwhile behovely, frimful/frimly (<OE frimlic)
advection n Tobearing, Atbearing, Onbearing
advent n coming, onset, showing up, calling on, coming forth foreyule, foreyuletide, (Forechristmas)
adventure n happening, time; flutter, throw, undertaking, fare rose (<OE rās), wayspell (cf. Sw.vågspel)
adventurous adj daring, free-swinging, gutsy, bold rosey, free-ghostly
adverb n - byword (cf. NHG. Beiwort, Du. bijwoord, Dn. biord)
adversarial n - thwartsome (Barnes), witherlike, gainsaying, fiendish, foelike
adversary n foe, witherling, fiend withersake (<OE wiþersaca, cf. NGH. Widersacher)
adversity n ill, knock, mishap; hardship, hurdle, pitfall thwartsomeness, hardhap, witherness
adversive n - thwartsome, withersome
advertize vb boost, play up, show off showmede
advertisement n boostering, showing -
advice n tip, help, read, reading rede (<OE raed, cf. Du. raad, NGH. Rat)
advisable adj - redesome (cf. NHG ratsam)
advise vb Beread, Berede berede, mind
advocacy n boost, boostership, backing forespeech (<OE forespræċ, cf. NHG. Fürsprache, Du. voorspraak)
advocate n/vb plead for, uphold, back up;
spokesman, stand up for
forspeak (<OE foresprecan, NHG fürsprechen)
aerial adj skywards, aloft, lofty, soaring, spirelike loften (<OE lyften)
aerodynamic adj streamlined wind deft, windfit, loftlithe
aerodynamics n - loftcraft (calque Gk.)
aeronaut n flyer roomfarer (room = space; cf. NHG Raum)
aerospace n skycraft, skyworks loftroom
Æsir n ghosts, gods, undead, fiends, wicked wights; foes Ese (<OE ese; see The Elder Gods by Stephen Pollington), wodes
aesthetic adj comely, fair, seemly, befitting, good looks wlitty (<OE wlitig)
affair n fling; blowout; handiwork;
happening; business
inting (<OE intinga)
affect vb lead to, strike, inflow, sway; wend, shift, switch, iwake (<OE

gewaecan), ifreme (<OE ge-freme) awork (<OE a-wyrcan)

forother (Du. veranderen)
affection n fondness; illness; leaning; hallmark; sweetness, dearness child: bairnlove (<OE bearnlufe)
affectionate adj loving, warm-hearted, indearing, sweet lovesome (Barnes)
affiance vb betroth -
affinity n leaning, kinship, sibred sibhood
affirm vb -

foraye (Barnes), begean (<OE begæn)

affirmative adv aye, yea, so, yes, yeah, yep yea-some, yea-ly, ayesome
affix n stick on, put on wordfastening
afflict vb ail, smite, dretch

swench (<OE swinc), beweal (<OE bewælan), thrysk (<OE ġeþryscan)

affluence n wealth, riches, fat weal, ethe
affluent adj wealthy, well-off, well-to-do
rich, fat
afraid adj aghast, fearful, frightened afeared
Africa n - Highsun
age n oldness, world, time, tide eld, tide (era)
age vb olden: mellow, ripen, elden eld
aged adj elderly, old(en), yore forolden, full-blown, full-fledged, grown.
agenda n to-do-list, ledger worklist (cf. Fr. wurklist), reckonleaf
agent n follower, minion (came from M.Frankish, but firstly from PG) -
agglomerate vb huddle clodden (Barnes)
agglomeration n crowding, heaping, clodding, swelltown
agglutinate vb wordlink upcleam (Barnes)
aggression n go-getting fightsomeness (built on Barnes), winsomeness
aggressive adj go-getting fightsome (Barnes), winsome
aggressor n raider scather
agile adj nimble, limber, lithe, light-footed, yare -
agitate(d) vb stir, toss, keyed-up -
agitation n worry mindfret, seething, churning
aglet n - needling, shoestring tip
agony n susle (<OE sūsl)
agoraphobia n - steadfear
agree vb settle on, fit, hold with (Barnes), stand [with], stick [with], yeasay

thwear (<OE þwǽrian), thave (<OE þafian), forewyrd (<OE forewyrdan)

agreeable adj - likeworthy, likable
agreement n deal, meeting of minds mirth, thwaring, thaving, soom (<OE som)
agrarian/agricultural adj field (Barnes) -
agriculture n farming, tilling, harvest fieldlore, earth-tilth (Barnes), cropcraft, landwardship (cf. NHG Landwirtschaft)
agrostology n - grasslore
aichmophobia n needlefright -
aid n helpmate, sidekick, backing, helping hand, leg up filst (<OE fylst), atstall (<OE ætstæl), fultum (<OE fultum/fulteam)
aid vb help, bestead filst (<OE fylstan), andfilst (<OE andfylstan)
aimsome adj single-minded (Barnes) -
AIDS n - Earned Bodyweir Scantness Sickness
aim n goal, mark tile (< OE tilian "to aim", cf. NHG Ziel)


aim at vb sight, take sight on eye for, nought in,
tile (< OE tilian, NHG zielen)
air n/vb

wind, breath

vb: broadcast; freshen

loft (<OE loft (through Old Norse) cf. NHG Luft, Du. lucht), lift (<OE lyft), life's breath
air force n sky might, sky arm loft-weir, loftmight (cf. Du. luchtmacht), skyheer (< OED heer=army)
airplane n wing craft, kite (slang), flightcraft flycraft (OE, floegan; loftcraft, stycraft from OE: upstigen to move up rise ascend), wingwain, flysarrow, sarrowbird (sarrow - technical wonder); tinbird (NZ slang)
airport n flight field (< Ice) landing field, sky harbor, landing strip flyfield, lofthub, lofthaven (calque)
airship n skyship loftship
aisle n path, lane gangway
alarm clock n - waker (cf. NHG: Wecker, Du wekker), wire-waker, wirerooster, lilter, uprouser, uprearer
alas interj alack, ay, woe welaway, lackaday, alack
albedo n - whiteness (<ME<OE hwitness), whiteshine, glowwhite
albino n - whiteling
album n - whitebook

music album (f.b, Thriller): gleebook

albumen n egg white egg lime
alchemy n - orecraft
alcohol n booze, firewater wineghost, áfengi
alcoholic adj boozer -
alcoholic n sot, drunkard, boozer malt-worm
alert adj awake, mindful, watchful, heedful, wary, numble, sharp-witted, ready, willing gleg, rathe (<OE rathe), wakesome (cf. NHG wachsam)
algorithm n - reckonwrit, reckondraft
alien n/adj way-out, fremd, outlandish fremd (Eng./NHG. fremd)
alien n outsider, evil ghost, kidnapper elster, elend, otherling
alienate vb - befremd (NHG. befremden)
alienation n unfriendliness befremding
align vb set up, fit, shape (into a line) -
allegiance n - truthness
allegory n likeness forlikening (Barnes)
allergy n - overfeeling, haysneezing, fremdcasting (an allergic reaction casts out foreign cells such as pollens)
alleviate vb allay, lighten, soften -
alley n walk, lane, byroad, pathway, walkway, gangway, laneway, ginnel -
alliance n bond, band, tie -
allied adj banded, befriended fayed
alligator n - broadmouthnix
alliteration n - staffrime (cf. NNl stafrijm, NHG Stabreim), staverime, mate-penning (Barnes)
allocate vb earmark, let, deal out fordeal
allotment n - alloting (non-Germanic prefix), allotness (non-Germanic prefix), fordealing
allow vb let (Barnes), leave, give the green light for thwore (<OE þwárian), thave (<OE þafian), aleave (<OE ālīefan, cf. NHG erlauben)
allowable adj - thwaresome, thavesome
alloy n mix, blend, meld mastling
All Saints Day n Allhallowsmas, Hallowmas, All Hallows’ -
allude vb hint (at), touch (on), link (to), liken (to) anent
allure vb draw to, beguile, ensnare spane (<OE spanan), adwell
ally n - ithoft, ifolk, ihild, ifight, ilie, ilay
almanac n yearbook -
alphabet n

alphabet: futhorc

staverow (<OE stæfrǣw), abecede, runeline, runecraft, runebook, staffhoard, runestaff
altar n weved (< OED, wigh bed, “holy bed”) giftboard, worship board, glowstead, gleedstead (<OE glédstede), wighbed (< OE wigbed, “holy bed”), harrow (<OE hearg, cf. OHG harug)
alter vb shift, wend forother (cf. Fr. feroar, Du. veranderen, NHG. verändern)
altercation n flite, brangle, brawl, row, dust-up -
alternate v waver, switch, become, shift -
alternative adj other -
altitude n height highmete, aloftness
altruism n selflessness -
altruistic adj selfless, unselfish -
aluminum n canstuff
Alzheimers n the long goodbye (non-anglish: the slow funeral)
amass vb gather, heap, huddle mill
amateur n greenhorn, beginner, starter, newcomer, newbie -
amazement (foreign suffix) n amazing
amazon n - bandfighters (calque of Old Persian *hamazan), wyewoman (calque of Irish banghaiscíoch and Scottish Gaelic ban-laoch)
ambassador n - rikesboder, landspellsman
amber n - brimstone, glarestone, burnstone, elksand (<OE eolhsand)
ambidextrous adj both-handed, two-handed, either-handed umberight, umbecrafty, umbehandy
ambience n mood, feeling roomfeel
ambiguous adj - twiwordy (<OE twiwyrdig), twisided (Barnes), twi-meaning, unsifer
ambiguity n - twiwordiness
ambivalence n - waver
ambivert n - twigoer
ambiverted adj - twigoing
ambulance n - sickwain, crankwain (<NHG Krankenwagen)
ambulant adj roving, wandering, wayfaring -
ambush n/ vb net, web; waylay (Barnes), forlay inbush
ameliorate vb better eather
amen interj


soothly (<OE soþlice), so be it (used in the early English Reformation), true dat (colloquial), yelayay

America n New World
Markland (<OE mearcland "borderland", cognate to ON markland, the name given by Leif Eriksson to aLabrador shoreline; the element m a r k incidentally, shares the same three consonant sounds as A m e r i c a), Westlands, Redlands
amiable adj friendly, sweet, kind lovesome (<OE lufsum)
amicable adj friendly, hail-fellow-well-met blithe
amigo n friend -
ammonia n - hartshorn
amnesia n blackout eftmind loss
amoeba n - shapeshifter, slimebrick, slimedeer (cf. Ic. slímdýr)
amorphous adj shapeless -
amount n score, lot, whit, deal (Barnes) -
amount vb come up bedraw (cf. NHG betragen, Du. bedragen)
ampersand n - andtoken
amphibian n - lurrow (cf. NHG Lurche), shoredeer, frogdeer (cf. Ic. froskdýr)
amphibious adj - two-breathed (Barnes)
amphitheater n - playstow, umbewitstow
ample adj broad, large, roomy
amplifier n - forstronger
amplify vb - outbroaden (Barnes)
amplitude n breadth, reach, width -
amputate v cut (off), rend, snithe, forcarve, limb, belimb -
amputated v/adj cut (off), rent/rended, snothe/snithed, forcorve/forcarved, limbed, belimbed -
amputation n cutting (off), rending, snithing, forcaving, limbing, belimbing cutness, cutoffness, rendness, snitheness, forcaveness, limbness, belimbness
amusement n fun, game, fun and games
amusing adj - listing
anachronism n mistiming (Barnes) -
anaconda n - whipsnake
anesthetic adj unsightly dwale
anagram n - stavewrixel
anal adj bottom arsely, arsen
analgesic n numbing anwark
analog adj gear-driven -
analogy n - alikeword
analyze vb look at forloosen (Barnes), think through, unthread, unriddle, onlight, onseek,

forloosen, uploosen, upsunder, nease (<OE to search, to find out by inquiry) onnease, anease

anarchism n/adj - lawlessholth, lawlesshood
anarchy n lawlessness

redelacking, ethellessness
chaos: dwolm (<OE)

anastomosis n shunt -
anathema n - forputting (calque Gk. anathema)
anatomy n - bodylore
ancestor n forebearer, forefather, elder, forerunner, fore-elder, alder-father, spearside, spindleside, forekin foremother, foreolder, alder-mother
ancestry n strain, seed, bloodties, house strind
ancient adj hoary, olden, old-time, foreold (Barnes) fern (<OE fyrn), orold (cf. NHG uralt), yoren, gamle (<OE gamol)
ancient times n yoretide -
andiron n firedog firegoat
androgyny n -

werewifehood (Calque of the Greek + "hood")

android n - manhue/werehue (cf. Greek andros 'man' and oeidēs 'hue' (<OE hiw))
anemometer n - windmeter (Barnes)
anemone n - windrose
anesthesia n - unfeeler (calque), number (one who numbs)
angel n - rotherer, errandghost (<OE ærendgást)
anger (O.N. loanword) n madness, wrath, uptightness, waspishness greme (<OE grama), waspness
angle n nook, bight, winkle nookspan, nookwidth, hook, hurn (<OE hyrne), whem (<OE hwemm)
angry (O.N. loanword) adj mad, wrathful, uptight, waspish, wasp -
anguish n woe, sorrow, heartbreak, heartache, throe angsomeness, bosom-hell, susle (<OE sūsl)
angular adj - nook-shot, sharp-nooked, straight-edged, hyrned (<OE hyrnen), edgy
animal n being deer, wight (<OE wiht), wilder, soulend, livle, neat (from OE, like neatsfoot oil),
neatenkind (<OE)
animate vb liven, enliven
literary: quicken (Barnes)
besoul (cf. NHG beseelen, Du. bezielen)
animation n drawn film -
anime n - dawnlandish livedrawing
animosity n hate(red) -
annals n - year-bookings
annelid n ringworm -
annex vb - onend (on+end) (cf. NHG Anschluss)
annihilate vb wipe out fornaughten (Barnes) benothing (Eng.)
annihilation n wrecking fornaughting, spild (OE)
anniversary n yearday, yeartide (Barnes), Frealstide (<OE a festival of the church, an anniversary), Year-imind (<OE) mind day (<OE gemynddaeg)
Anno Domini adv in the year of our lord -
annotate vb mark bemark
annotation n marking bemarking (NGH Bemerkung)
announce vb ban, bode, bid, kithe forcouth (<OE cýðan, cf. NHG verkünden), meld (<OE meldian, cf. NHG./Du. melden), forthspell, spell out
announcement n - oncouthing (cf. NHG Ankündigung)
annoy vb irk (Barnes), nettle -
annoying adj irksome (Barnes) -
annual adj yearly -
annual n yearbook -
annul vb fordo, call off -
annuli astronomici n Gemma's Rings -
anoint v smear, salve (<MW, cf. OE sealf & cf. NHG. Salbe; do not confuse with Latin homonym) anele, throughsmear (<OE þūrhsmyrian)
anonymous adj nameless, unnamed, unknown -
anorexia nervosa n - foodshy, eatshy, fastlust
antagonist n

fiend, foe

witherling, gainstander
antarctic n southend -
Antarctica n South End South Hern, Underland
antecedence n beforemath, foregoing -
antediluvian adj - foreflood
antenna n - yardhorn, sailyard, feelers (biology)
Ante Meridiem phr Before Midday (calque) -
antelope n pronghorn (specifically American antelopes) sawhorn, wildbuck
anterior adj foreward; foregoing, former -
anterior n fore, foreside -
anthem n - folksong, landsong
anthocyanin n - flowerblue
anthology n reader fayness
Anthropocene n Mantide
anthropology n - theedlore, manlore, werelore
anti-vaxx adj - wither-imp
antibiotic n gainrodlifeanwork
antisemite adj Jew-hater -
anticipate vb foretell, foresee forethink (<OE foreþenċan)
anticlockwise adj/adv widdershins withclockwise, withershins
antics n - odd behaveness, childishness
anticonstitutionally adv - witherlawwritly, withlawwritly
antidisestablishmentarianism n - gainunstathelingmanness
antidote n - atterloathe (<ME atterllothe)
antigen n - offweirstuff
antihero n - banestar, gainheleth, withheleth, witherheleth
antilope n - buck (cf. Afr. bok), bloomgoat
antimatter n - gainstuff, witherstuff, unbeing, unstuff
antipathy n mislike -
antipope n gainfather (cf. NHG gegenpapst)
antiquated adj careworn, timestruck -
antique n eldern, barn-find, timeless-ware(s)
antique adj barn-find (antique: more than a hundred years old; vintage: several decades old)
antiquity n olden days; oldness, eldnerliness

afern (OE fyrn 'former, ancient')

antiseptic adj - withersmite
antistatism n -


antistatist adj - witherlawmootish
antistatist n - leedward witherling
antitoxin n - gainatter
antler n - blowhorn (<OE blōwan)
antonym n - witherword
gainword (cf. NHG gegenwort)
anulus n ring -
anus n arsehole (vulgar), asshole (American, vulgar; note that arse is not said as often in America) arse-thirl (OE: earsþerl), back-tharm, endring
anxiety n worry, fear angness, angens, angs, moodcare
aorta n - loftleat
apart adj cleaved, sundered, shedded -
apart from adv aside, asunder -
apartment n flat, room, by-room woning (cf. NHG Wohnung)
apathetic adj aloof, samewise -
aperture n opening, breech, hole -
apex n tip, yop, top -
aphid n greenfly, blackfly wortlice
aphrodisiac n - lustdrive
apiculture n beekeeping -
apogee n - hightip
apologise vb say sorry

forshild, unshild (cf. Du. verontschuldigen, NHG. entschuldigen, see shild)

apology n sorry rueword, sorroword, belading (<OE)
defense: besaying, forespeech (<OE forespræċ)
apostate n backslider, withersake -
apostasy n backsliding backslideness, backslidehood, withersaking, withersakeness, withersakehood
apostle n errand-bearer errander, errand-wakener (OE ærendwrecca), sendling, fro-sent
apothecary n - libshop
apparel n clothes, wear, threads, weed glad rags, donnings, step-outs
apparent adj seeming eyeshinely (cf. NHG. augenscheinlich, Du. ogenschijnlijk)
apparently adv/phr seemingly, at first sight, in name only, on the outside, openly, to the eye, as it shows staringly, eyeshinely (cf. NHG. augenscheinlich, Du. ogenschijnlijk)
appeal vb call (upon) ask, beckon, clepe
appealing adj fair, winsome, sightly -
appear vb show up, beseem tew up (cf. OE ætīwan, ætywan), forshine (cf. Du. verschijnen, NHG. erscheinen)
appearance n

blee, look, cast, hue

leer, eyeshine (NHG. Augenschein)
appease vb soothe, allay frithen
appellation n name -
appendage n limb -
appendicitis n - blindgut addle
appendix n - organ: blindgut, blindtharm (cf. Fr. blineterm, NHG Blinddarm)
book: tack-on, onhang (cf. NHG Anhang)
appetite n craving, hunger -
appetizer n starter foremeal
application n bearing, putting-on -
applause n standing and clapping byfall (cf. NHG Beifall, Du. bijval)
apply vb beseech, lay on, spread bewharve (cf. NHG bewerben, see wharve)
appoint vb afix, set up, earmark, deem, settle, name wend out, aset (<OE āsettan and <ME asetten)
appreciate v be thankful
apprehension n foreboding, misgiving -
apprentice n beginner, learner learnend
approach vb near, be nigh, draw near to, come forth, creep up on nighletch (<OE neahlæcan)
approach n means, way
approaching adj nearing, forthcoming, upcoming, oncoming nighleching
appropriate adj befitting, seemly, meet roadly (cf. OE geradlic)
approve v let, bid

approve of: laud

approximate adj rough, near, loose -
approximately adv about, roughly, nearly, nigh umb
appurtenance n - sidemarking, nethermark
April n - Eastermonth
apron n - barmcloth
apt adj fit deve (<OE defe), iroadly (<OE ġerādliċ)
aquaculture n fish-farming -
aqualung n - waterlung
aquamarine adj seagreen -
aquaphobia n - waterfear
aquaphobic adj afraid of (the) water -
aquaplaning n - watergliding
aquarium n - fishglass, waterglass
aquatic adj waterly -
aqueduct n - waterleat
aqueous adj watery, water like, water bearing -
Arabic adj Arabish (<OE Arabisċ)
arable adj - ploughsome
arachnid n - eight-legger
arboreal adj - treewise
arbitrary adj whimsy fallenly (cf. Du. toeval), willkirely (<OE willa + cyre 'choice' + 'līc)
arboretum n - treestead
arc n bow -
arcade n - playhall (cf. Du. speelhal, NHG Spielhalle)
arch n bow biel (<OE Bígel)
archaic adj. timeworn forold (Eng., cf. NHG. veraltet)
archangel n - highangel
archeology n - olddomlore, (cf. NHG Altertumskunde) delvelore, fernfrod (cf. Ic. fornleifafræði), oldhoodlore (Dutch:oudheidkunde), olddelving (cf.Swedish:fornforskning)
archeopterix n - stoneset orfowl (cf. NHG Urvogel), stonelayed oldenwing
archer n bowman, bow-bearer Bow-bearer, shooter (<OE scytta)
archery n bowmanship bowcraft
archfoe n devil godfoe
archipelago n - itune (<OE ieg 'island' + tun), island cluster.
architect n - highcrafter (<OE), Baumaster (Dutch:bouwmeester)
architecture n shell, framework buildlore, buildcraft, timberlore, timbercraft, orshafting
architrave n - silebeam
archive n backup leafwritsam (cf. Ic. 'skjalasafn'), logsam, deedsam, writsam, backlog
arctic adj - bear- (Ursa Minor), far-northern
Arctic n Land of the Midnight Sun Northend, Northland
ardor n keenness, lust hotheartedness (<OE hatheortnes)
arduous n back-breaking -
area n land, landspan, swathe, ard (<OE), snad, sned (<OE), yard field of knowledge: breadth
argent n silver -
Argentina n - Silverland
argon n - idlestuff
arguable adj moot sakebere
argue vb flite, wrestle, squabble, wrangle, bicker, tilt chide
argument n flite, fightback, comeback, back-answer, answer rake (<OE racu)
argus-eyed adj all-seeing, open-eyed, unsleeping -
aridity n drought, dryness rainlack, dryth
Aries n The Fleecy Star
aristocratic adj full-blooded, highborn, highbred rikeborn, richborn, athelborn
arithmetic n - tellcraft (<OE getælcræft)
arm vb - beweapon
arm n - handweapon
armadillo n - shellbear, shieldling, girdledeer (cf. NHG Gürteltier, Du. gordeldier)
armillary sphere n - ringkuggle
arming n - weaponing, outrysting (cf. NHG Ausrüstung)
armistice n truce weaponstandstill (cf. NHG Waffenstillstand)
armor n shield, byrnie, iweapon, iweaponings (<OE), gouthreaf, gouthsear, gouthsare (<OE) shieldwear, shieldcloth, helmcladding, heraweed (<OE herewǣde), firedskeerp (<OE fierdsceorp), rysting (<OE hyrstan, cf. NHG Rüstung), hereclad
armor vb begear, beshield, ryst/rist (<OE hrystan, cf. NHG rüsten) iron (<OE ísenian)
armory n shieldhouse shieldwearhouse, helmcladdenhouse, heraweedhouse, firedskeerphouse, weaponhouse (<OE wæpenhūs), rysthouse
army n fyrd, ferd, landfyrd landferd, dright, weremight, ganghere (foot men), thrim (<OE þrymm; cf. MnE trim), here (<OE ​here), herg
aroma n smell duft
around prep/adj/ adv about um, umb, umbe
arouse vb stir, awake, arear -
arquebus n matchlock, firelock hookbox (cf. MLG hake + busse, MHG Hakenbüchse), hookgun (calque, historical), matchgun
arrange vb fix, set, settle; draw up, lay out, Endbeird (<OE), Fade (<OE) stight
arrangement n layout -
array vb lay out, set out, bedight -
arrest vb nab, avast, halt, stop haft (<OE hæftan)
arrive at vb reach, come upon, get to oncome (<OE ancuman)
arrogant adj proud, highhanded, overbearing, overweening lonk (<OE wlank)
arsenal n - weaponhoard
arsonist n fire-raiser firestarter
art n craft list (calque)
artery n - loftblood adder
artesian adj - thringrising
arthritis n - lithbollow (cf. Ic. Liðbólga)
artichoke n - eatthistle (cf. Ic. ætiþistill)
article n thing, write-up writ

grammar: lithword (cf. Du. lidwoord)

artificer n maker, craftsman, smith, wright worldcrafter (<OE woruldcræfta)<vr />pl: worldcraftren (<OE woruldcræftan)
artificial adj man-made, craftly -
artillery n gunware -
artisan n -
art(s), artistry n craft, deftness, handiwork -
Asatru(ar) (maður) n - Esetroth(er), Ostroth(er)
asbestos n - thrumstone, stone-flax, earthflax, (sl) devil dust, devil's dust.
ascend vb climb, sty upcome (<OE ūpcuman and <ME upcǒmen)
Ascension Day n - Gang-Day (<OE gangdæg)
ascent n upgoing, rise upgang (Brit.)
asexual n - swiveless
Asia n the East Easterngreatland, Morrowland (German:Morgenland)
Asian (race) n yellow (vulgar slang) Eastern, Far-Eastern
asparagus n sparrowgrass earthnavel (<OE eorðnafela)
asphalt n - streettar
aspin n - philipdog
assail vb scathe lay into col.; beset, raid, storm -
assassin n hitman, murderer, banesman. -
assassinate vb kill, murder amurder (cf. NHF ermorden)
assault v onset, onrush, beset onfall (Eng, NHG. Anfall)
assault n onset, onrush, besetting

andfeng (<OE), onfall (Eng., NHG. Anfall)

assemble vb cleave, gather, huddle, band, frame, build, set up, forgather sam, samen, (<OE samnian,cf. ON samna, NHG sammeln, Du. zamelen),
evencome (<OE efencuman)
assembly n forgathering, ingathering, meeting, church, get-together, huddle moot (<OE gemot), samening (<OE samnung), leedsteven (<OE léodstefn),
thing (dead sense of OE þing, shifted to be meant "object" by c. 1300.
Still retained in NHG Sache, which has both meanings.), day (cf. NHG -tag, SW -dag), daying (cf. NHG tagung, SW dagen)
assent n - samethick (cf. SW. samtycke, IC. samþykki, Dan./Norw. samtykke)
asset n holding -
assiduous adj hopping, tied-up, working, abiding workfast
assign vb allot (non-Germanic prefix), foreset, deed, trust -
assimilate vb - inblend, uptake/upnim (cf. NHG. aufnehmen)
assist vb help, bestead, prop up, fultum (<OE) filst (<OE fylstan)
assistance n help, backing, helping hand, lift filst (<OE fylst), midhelp (<OE midhelp), atstall (<OE ætstæl), fultum (<OE fultum), byhelp (cf. NHG Beihilfe)
assistant n helper

filstend (<OE fylstend), atstandand (<OE ætstandend)

associate vb/n - noun: ichurl, iformeng
verb: formeng (OE formengan)
association n hookup, linkup, tie-up, brotherhood, guild, club, fellowship underbind, forband (cf. NHG Verband), dowith (< OE dōn + wiþ)
assume vb deem; foreguess, bear, shoulder, undertake, inim [OE ge-nyman: to take up, to take on, assume]

hie/huy(<OE hycgan 'bear in mind, confide, trust), smigh (<OE smēagan
'consider think about mediate examine scrutinize'), ween, behowe (<OE behawian), ettle (<OE eahtian)

assure vb - forsicker (<SW försäkra 'to insure; to get an insurance for', to ensure; to make certain, to assure; to give someone confidence in the trustworthiness of something)
aster n - starbloom
asterisk n star starling; starkin
asteroid n - roomrock, rock wanderer
asthma n - angbreast (<OE angbreost)
astonish vb astound, dumbfound, amaze, bewilder, bewonder, startle, baffle offwonder
astonished n astounded, dumbfounded,
amazed, bewildered, bewondered, startled
offwondered (<OE ofwundrod)
astonishing adj amazing, astounding, blindsiding, eye-opening startling, stunning, wonderful bewondering
astral adj - rotherly (<OE rodor), starly, star-
astrarium n - tungletimer
Astrarium of Giovanni
Dondi dell'Orologio
n - liefbound tungletimer
astrolabe n - starreckoner
astrology n starcraft tungle sway, tungleshed (<OE tungolgescead)
astronaut n - starman, heavensfarer, skyfarer, skytaker
astronomy n starlore, starlooking heavenlore
astute adj shrewd, cunning, smart
sharp, quick-witted
yepe (<OE geap), glew (<OE glēaw)
asymmetrical adj lopsided -
asylum n grith, haven; madhouse -
asymptote n - ameetend
atavism n throwback -
atelier n workshop -
atheism n godlessness -
atheïst adj godless liefless, unliefsome, ungodsome
-ative suffix - -ingly
atlas n - land book
atmosphere n -

welkin, lofthelm (<OE lyfthelm) welkintrindle, lofttrindle, ethem (<OE meaning, breath, air atmosphere)

atom n grot (ME, <OE  grōt, "particle") formote, uncleft
atrocious adj frightful, rotten -
atrophy n withering, dying, waning -
attack n onslaught, onset, beset, onrush, strike, blow, hit hildrush, onshot, ongripe (<OE ongrype and akin to NHG Angriff)
attack vb raid, rush, strike, Bestorm -
attack helicopter n - strikenchopper
attain vb reach acome, fulcome (<OE fullcuman) or (cf. NHG vollkommen)

areach (<ME arēchen)

attempt n bid, crash, fling, go, shot, whack, whirl cunning, fanding, minting
attempt vb seek cun (<OE cunnian), fand, mint
attend vb hearken, mind; care, oversee, watch -
attendant n steward thew, theen, atstandand (<OE ætstandend)
attention n heed, mind, aught bemarking
attest vb witness, swear, bear out beshine (NHG. bescheinigen), besteady (NHG. bestätigen)
attic n loft thackroom
attire n cladding -
attitude n standing, outlook, mood, ways, behaving instelling (cf. Du. instelling)
attorney n lawman -
attract vb draw, draw in

span (<OE spannan), adwell (<OE adwellan)

attractive adj comely, fair, good-looking, handsome, winsome, sightly wlitty (<OE wlitig)
attraction n - wondersight
attribute n ownship -
auction n - biddingsale
audacious adj daring, bold, ballsy, fearless, unafeared, cheeky, dare-all, dareful, unfearing, reckless, stoor thriste
audacity n gall, guts, mettle, hardihood, hardiness, boldness, boldhood -
audible adj - hearly, hearsome
audience n listeners, hearing eargathering, greetinghouse (<OE)
audio n loud listenet (listen + -et, cf. Eng. thicket)
augment vb eke bemore
August n - Weedmonth
augury n - freit (<ME freit), ontoken
aunt n - father's sister: fathe (<OE Faðe or Faðu), vaster
mother's sister: modrey, mothrey (<OE Modrige or Modrie), muster,

faye (<OE faþe "father's sister")

aurora n

dawning, daylight

aurora australis n southern lights -
aurora borealis n northern lights -
aurum n gold yellow dust
auscultation n harkening lossening (<OE hlosnian: to listen wait, be on the lookout for)
austere adj - yarewit
austerity n hardliness tighthold
autism n - selfdom
Australia n New Holland Andland (cf. H Ic. proposal 'Andland,' found here ); The Great Southland, Great Southern Lands, the Sutherlands, Thiefland (slang)
Austria n Austrick (Scots) Eastrick (<OHG Osterrici, cf. NHG Österreich)
autarchy n thralldom owndom, selfrike, selfkingdom, selfreevedom, ownrike, thrallreevedom
author n writer bookwright
authentic adj true -
authority n headship, shark, deathgrip elderdom (<OE ealdordóm), lorewdom, learnedom (<OE láréowdóm), swinge
auto- pref self- -
autodidact adj selftaught selflearned
automaker n wainwright -
automatic adj


gunning: self-loading, half-tilt, full-tilt

machinery: selfworking, selfdriving, selfdriven
automobile n - selfshifter (calque)
autonomy n - selflaw, selfstanding
autonym n selfname -
autopsy n - open body underseeking, deathreading
Autotune n - Selftune
autumn n fall till, harvest
auxiliary adj backup, fallback-, helping eke
avail vb - dow (< archaic NE dow <ME duʒen < OE dugan;cf. Sc. dow), frim, miling
available adj free, ready, in stock, at hand, forthcoming arworthsome (calque), athandsome, atputsome
avalanche n snowslide barrowfall, fellfall
avant garde n forhead -
avant garde adj cutting edge -
avarice n greed yetsing (<OE gitsung)
avatar n - fleshbilth
avenge vb wreak -
avenue n - drive
average adj middling -
avert vb forestall, head off, stave off mithe, forecome, offwend, umbewend (redirect), unwend (cf. NHG entwenden)
aviary n birdhouse, birdstow. -
aviation n flight flyingcraft
aviator n birdman, flyer loftman, rotherer
avid adj raring -
avocado n butter pear; soft apple -
avoid vb miss, shun, ware, stay away, keep away

mithe (obs.), forecome, sedge (<OE ġesecgan), umgang, umgo
(cf. NHG umgehen), (see um-)

avow vb swear, trow, own yea-say
award vb bestow, acknowledge -
axis n axle, shaft -
azimuth n - south hern (cf. Ic. Attarhorn)
Aztec n - Heronlander (A person from Aztlan, which literally means "a place of herons")
Aztec adj - Heronlandish
azure adj haw (ME <OE hæwen) swail, blee
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