Staff A of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
a cappella avb/adj singing loneglee, mouthglee, mouthly
à la carte adj by-the-list
aardvark n ant bear, ant-bear, antbear earthpig, earthswine, earthfarrow
abacus n - reckonboard (cf. NHG Rechenbrett)
abandon vb

shed, forgo, forsake (Barnes)
give up, forget

forlet (UK dialectal ~ cf. OE forlǣtan, Fr. ferlitte, Du. verlaten, Nw. forlate, NHG verlassen) of-give, up-give, forleave, forlese, unget

abandon n wantonness, recklessness, forsaking overgive
abandonment n forsaking shedding
abase vb cheapen, warp; shame, sink, belittle, lay low, fell, drop unar, anether
abash vb faze, ashame -
abate vb drain away, drop off, dwindle, ease, ebb, fall away, lessen, let up, lower, shrink, wane -
abattoir n slaughterhouse -
abbess n mother overmother
abbreviation n short for, shorthand offshortening, forshortening, shortening, shortshape, shortstaving
abdicate vb step down, step aside from -
abdomen n kite, quith (<OE cwiþ) riff (<OE hrif)

bouk (Eng., calque of all Ger. speeches)

abduct vb kidnap, steal, lead away, offlead, nab -
aberrant n black-sheep, weird -
aberration n freak, way-outness unfollowing
abet vb goad, spur, hearten fuse (<ME fusen)
abhor vb hate, loathe, mislike -
ability n skill, might, craft, ken, cunning, knack
in-born: mother-wit
formay (cf. Du. vermogen)
abject adj low heanly (<OE heanlic), downcast (Barnes)
abjure vb forswear, take back, unsay, withdraw swear off (cf. NHG abschwören), aftercwethe
ablactate vb wean -
ablation n offtaking, offferrying -
ablative adj - atbraidingly, shiftfall (<Ic. skiftafall)
ablaut n - offlloud
able adj fit, skilled

dow, stand (cf. Dn, Nw, NHG)

-able sfx -worthy, -some, -bearing, -ly, -wende

-endly/-ingly, -cannish, -canny

-worth, (<OE -wierþe)

-beare (cf. OE -bære, Fr. -ber, NHG -bar)

able to phr can, may, to be canny enough, to be cunning enough, up to dow to, skilled to
ablution n washing, cleansing furbing
abnegate vb forgo, forswear -
abnormal adj amiss, unwonted, odd unmean, unshapely (Barnes)
abolish vb end, let die out, die off, stop;
quench, black out, stamp out, sweep away, wipe out

fordo, forend, adiley (<OE ādīlegian)

offship (cf. NHG abschaffen)

abominable adj awful, dreadful, evil, loathsome, sickening shandful (<OE scandful, cf. NGH/Du. schandvoll), slithely, besmearful, wargedly (<OE)
aboriginal adj inborn, dwelt before firstfolkish, orfolkly (see or- )
aborigine n - orfolk (OE or 'origin') firstfolk (see or- )
abort vb lay off, call off, end -
abortion n misbirth forbirthing, awaywarpness (<OE)
abound vb brim, teem, overflow -
abrasion n graze, scrape -
abridge vb cut back, forshorten, cut  littlen (<OE)
abrupt adj anon, at once, quick, fast, steep shorn (<OE scoren)
abscess n swelling atterboil (cf. NHG Eiterbeule, Du. etterbuil)
abscond vb break out, run off, steal away -
absence n

time off, lack, needfulness, want; dearth

offwardness (<OE)
absent adj missing, wanting, out offward (<OE)
absenteeism n how often out offwardness
absent-mindedness n daydreaming, flighty, thoughtless, unheeding, unmindful, woolgathering -
absinthe n wormwood drink -
absolute adj unanswering, answering to none, God-king

outright, utter, full, rank, checkless (Barnes)

absolutely adv fully, wholly, dead -
absolve vb forgive offloosen (Barnes)
absorb vb drink, soak, sop, soak in, soak up, suck up, take up; grip; burn, drain, draw down, play out bedrink (<OE bedrincan)
up-soak, forsoak (Barnes)
abstain (from) vb forbear (Barnes), forego
withhold, hold back

swear off

abstinence n - forbearing, forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes)
abstract vb withdraw, take from, pull out, seethe out -
abstract adj dreamlike, foggy, floating fallenly, unbodied
abstract n withdrawal, outline outpulling, outdraught, offdrawal (abstraction)
abundance n wealth, lot fullsomeness (<OE)
abundant adj teeming, swarming, overflowing, fulsome, rife, fat, thick, awash -
abuse vb scathe, mishandle, smite, strike, harm, wound hean (<OE hienan), smittle, misbrook
abysmal adj lowest, at bottom, deep, hellish, in the hole, hopeless, dreadful
2. fathomless, bottomless
netherly, unfathomly
abyss 1. hell

2. depth, ground, deep, pit, netherworld

newel (<OE neowol)

offground (cf. NGH. Abgrund, Du. Afgrond)

acacia n thorn tree, whistling thorn, wattle thornbloom, hookthorn
academia n - learnedom, loredom, frod (<OE),
lorekeep, brainhall, highspire, bookborough, mindthralldom
academic or academik n/adj highbrow, book-learned, bookish moot, booksome, lorewise, mighty-brained
n: loreman
açaí n - koleberry
accede vb - agree: thware (<OE)
accelerate vb speed up, spur, quicken (Barnes) yare, swiften
acceleration n speeding up yareness, swifteness
accent n twang, drawl, sound tungfall (cf. Du. tongval ), word-strain (Barnes)
accept vb swallow, trust; bear, shoulder; intake (Barnes)

thave, thware (<OE þwarian 'to bring into agreement, make harmonious') ontake, onfang (<OE onfon)

acceptable adj all right, fair, good thwaringly, thewsome
access n doorway, gateway, key infare, ingoing
accessible adj at hand yea-fare, thuringly
accessory n - bykeeper, deedmate (Barnes)
accident n mishap; hap, luck, befall unfall (cf. NHG unfall) , hapliness (Barnes)
accidental adj unwitting fallenly, happensome (Barnes)
accompany vb go with, follow, see off

beglide (cf. Du. begeleiden, NHG begleiten), samodsithe (<OE samodsīðian)

accomplish vb phr fulfill, sow up, bring about, reach -
accomplishment n bringing(s)-forth; Shakespeare
accord n deal, meeting of minds thaving, thwaring
accordion n - bellowharp
according to adj as of, by, true to


nigh (cf. NHG nach), after, following (calque)
account n ledger, reckoning, log reckoning (cf. Du. rekening, Fr. rekken), reckonbook, reckonreme (reme - number)
account of vb take of, witness (give) forof (on)
accountant n - teller (cf. Du. tal, NHG Zahle 'number')
accumulate vb heap, upheap, build up, gather up -
accumulation vb unheaping -
accurate adj right on, spot-on swotel (<OE sweotol)

narrowcore (calque of Du. nauwkeurig, narrow - core 'choice')

accusation noun bewraying (cf. Eng. bewrayment) -
accusative (case) adj - wrayingly (<OE wregendlic)

end-case (Barnes)

tholfall (cf. Ic. þolfall)

whonefall (<OE hwone, the accusative of "hwæt", refer to German "wen" and "Wenfall")

accuse vb wray, guilt


fromtyghtle (<OE frumtyhtle,
originally meaning first accusation)

forwray (<OE forwregan)

accustom vb wean, wean on, wean to onwone (Barnes)
accustomed adj wont, used to -
acephalous adj headless (Barnes) -
acetone n - sourghost
achievement n bringing(s)-forth; Shakespeare
acid n/adj - sour
acne n - redmeal (OE mal 'spot')
aconite n wolfsbane -
acoustics n - dinlore
acquaint vb befriend, get to know ken (<OE cunnan (“to become acquainted with, to know”))
acquaintance n friend, neighbor, kith kenning
acquiesce vb bow thave (<OE)
acquire vb earn, foster, get, win beget (<OE)
acquisition n

windfall (unexpected)

acrobat n - stringtumb
acropolis n high town, upper town, show town highborough, highbury
across adv over thwarse, thweer, athwart (Barnes)
act n deed, work, play, behaving -
act vb do, work, behave, happen -
action n deed (Barnes), doing, work,
do (as, 'all talk and no do'), liveliness, behaving, happening
ishown (<OE ġescēon, cf. NHG Geschehen)


activate vb switch on -
active adj switched on, snell, deedy;
mettlesome, springy; hopping, tied-up, unruly
ongoing, doingsome (Barnes), doughty,
sprack (Barnes)
activist n browbeater, henpecker, backer, upholder, fighter, diehard,

wrangler, arm-bender, bully, busybody, blusterer

actor/actress n player, showman showplayer
actual adj sooth, soothfast, true new, nowly
actually adv indeed, truly, soothly, forsooth, truthfully,

all in all, truth to tell, word for word

workly, echtly (see echt), wittedly (<OE)
acupuncture n pinpricking nailhealing
acute adj sharp, high (Barnes), keen, honed; shrill (accent) swotel
A.D. adv in the year of our lord Y.L.
ad infinitum adv forevermore at eke, ekely, for eke, unto everness
adamant adj unyielding, unswayed, loud -
adaptable adj - onwending (cf. Du. aanwendbaar)
adapter n - eck-on, fayfitter
add vb fay, eke

"fay to this wordbook!"

reckon up, put on, onput (Barnes), at-eke (OE)
add up vb cast up, tally up -
addict n - soughtier (cf. NHG Süchtiger)
addicted adj - soughty (cf. NHG süchtig)
addiction n craving, yearning sought (<ME soght cf. NHG Sucht)
addition n faying togive
additional adj - bycoming (Du. bijkomend), coming by
additionally adv

again, also, besides, either, further, furthermore, likewise, moreover, then, too, withal, yet, over and above

eke (also)
address vb call, name, clip, bespeak at-speak, bequethe, hote
address n link sitline (<OE: asittan 'to live together'), callword
adept adj skillful, skilled, good, deft, cunning -
adequate adj right, even, fair, fit, befitting, becoming makeshift/ make-do
adhere vb cling, stick, cleave to,
follow, stand by
at-cleave (<OE)
oncleave (Barnes)
adherence to good morals n - thewfastness
adherent n follower, stalwart -
adiposis n overweight fat
adjacent adj near, next, neighboring, beside, by -
adjective n - mark-word (Barnes)
adjunct n helpmate, sidekick -
adjust vb set, fit, gear forstell (cf. NHG/Du. verstellen)

(see stell)

admonish vb - formone (cf. Du. vermanen)
administer vb wield, deal, lot, begive  bewit
administration n dealing, shire, begiveness shiredom, shirecraft,rikedom
admiral n - fleethelm, fleetleader, fleetwielder (wielder < OE walda)
admire vb look up to bewonder, Belook
admission n doorway thwaring
admit vb

let in, acknowledge, welcome, greet, take in

confess: own up

andet (<OE andhetan)

give to (cf. NHG zugeben, Du. toegeven)

confess: beknow (Eng.)

sense to join a club, society, admit to hospital, etc: Instep, Onsend, Tosend, Intake

admonish vb chide, forewarn, upbraid, warn tell off, man (<OE manian)
adolescence n youthhood, growing up teenhood
adolescent n youth, youngling, youngster, teen -
adopt vb take on, follow; take in,
mother, rear, foster,
bring up, take care of
adoption n fostering intaking
adorable adj comely, lovely, looksome, dear, sweet -
adorn vb bedeck (Barnes), yare, trim, bedizen

breen (<OE berenian)

with precious stones:
astean (<OE āstæna āstænan)

adrenaline n - thringweald
adulation n - hallowing
adult n grown-up fulwaxener (see Eng. waxen), waxen
adulthood n - waxenhood
adultery n - wedlock breach, Forlairness (<OS Farlegarnessi; see OE leġer)
adumbrate vb outline -
advance vb make inroads, forward, further, go (on)

trans. put forth

forthgo, wade on
advance n inroads, headway; breakthrough
in advance: beforehand
advanced adj quick, ahead, higher, better, hard, tough, skilfull, clever, manifold, knotted, snarled forthstridden
advancing adj striding -
advantage n boon, foredeal, high ground, upper-hand boot, behoof, upside
advantageous adj helpful, worthwhile behovely, frimful/frimly (<OE frimlic)
advection n Tobearing, Atbearing, Onbearing
advent n coming, onset, showing up, calling on, coming forth foreyule, foreyuletide, (Forechristmas)
adventure n happening, time; flutter, throw, undertaking, fare rose (<OE rās)

wayspell (cf. Sw.vågspel)

adventurous adj daring, free-swinging, gutsy, bold rosey, free-ghostly
adverb n - byword (cf. NHG. Beiwort, Du. bijwoord, Dn. biord)
adversarial n - thwartsome (Barnes), witherlike, gainsaying, fiendish, foelike
adversary n foe, witherling, fiend withersake (<OE wiþersaca, cf. NGH. Widersacher)
adversity n ill, knock, mishap; hardship, hurdle, pitfall thwartsomeness, hardhap, witherness
adversive n - thwartsome, withersome
advertize vb boost, play up, show off showmede
advertisement n boostering, showing
advice n tip, help, read, reading rede (<OE raed, cf. Du. raad, NGH. Rat)
advisable adj Redesome (cf. NHG ratsam)
advise vb Beread, Berede berede, mind
advocacy n boost, boostership, backing forespeech (<OEforespræċ, cf. NHG. Fürsprache, Du. voorspraak)
advocate n/vb plead for, uphold, back up;
spokesman, stand up for
forspeak (<OE foresprecan, NHG fürsprechen)
aerial adj skywards, aloft, lofty, soaring, spirelike loften (<OE lyften)
aerodynamic adj streamlined wind deft, windfit, loftlithe
aerodynamics n - loftcraft (calque Gk.)
aeronaut n flyer roomfarer (room = space; cf. NHG Raum...)
aerospace n skycraft, skyworks loftroom
Æsir n ghosts, gods, undead, fiends, wicked wights; foes Oses (<OE os, -ir is an ON plural, the etym of Æsir means “spirits, demons”), wodes
aesthetic adj comely, fair, seemly, befitting, good looks wlitty (< OE wlitig)
affair n fling; blowout; handiwork;
happening; business
inting (< OE intinga)
affect vb lead to, strike, inflow, sway; wend, shift, switch, Iwake (< OE

gewaecan), Ifreme (< OE ge-freme) Awork (< OE a-wyrcan)

frother (Du. veranderen)
affection n fondness; illness; leaning; hallmark; sweetness, dearness child: bairnlove (<OE bearnlufe)
affectionate adj loving, warm-hearted, indearing, sweet lovesome (Barnes)
affiance vb betroth -
affinity n leaning, kinship, sibred sibhood
affirm vb -

foraye (Barnes),
begean (<OE begæn)

affirmative adv aye, yea, so, yes, yeah, yep yea-some, yea-ly, ayesome
affix n stick on, put on wordfastening
afflict vb ail, smite, dretch

swench (<OE swinc),
beweal (<OE bewælan),
thrysk (<OE ġeþryscan)

affluence n wealth, riches, fat weal, ethe
affluent adj wealthy, well-off, well-to-do
rich, fat
afraid adj aghast, fearful, frightened afeared
Africa n - Highsun
age n oldness, world, time, tide eld, tide (era)
age vb olden: mellow, ripen, elden eld
aged adj elderly, old(en), yore forolden, full-blown, full-fledged, grown.
agenda n to-do-list, ledger worklist (cf. Fr. wurklist), reckonleaf
agglomerate vb huddle clodden (Barnes)
agglomeration n crowding, heaping, clodding, swelltown
agglutinate vb wordlink upcleam (Barnes)
aggressive adj go-getting fightsome (Barnes)
aggressor n raider scather
agile adj nimble, limber, lithe
light-footed, yare
agitate(d) vb stir, toss, keyed-up -
agitation n worry mindfret, seething, churning
aglet n - needling, shoestring tip
agoraphobia n - steadfear
agree vb settle on, fit, 
hold with (Barnes), stand [with], stick [with], yeasay

thwear (<OE þwǽrian)
thave (<OE þafian)

forewyrd (<OE forewyrdan)

agreeable adj - likeworthy
agreement n deal, meeting of minds mirth, thwaring, thaving, soom (<OE som)
agrarian/agricultural adj field (Barnes) -
agriculture n farming, tilling, harvest fieldlore, earth-tilth (Barnes), cropcraft
landwardship (cf. NHG Landwirtschaft)
agrostology n - grasslore
aichmophobia n needlefright -
aid n helpmate, sidekick; backing, helping hand, leg up filst (<OE fylst)

atstall (<OE ætstæl) fultum (<OE fultum/fulteam)

aid vb help, bestead filst (<OE fylstan), andfilst (<OE andfylstan)
aimsome adj single-minded (Barnes) -
AIDS n - Earned Bodyweir Scantness Sickness
aim n goal, mark tile (< OE tilian "to aim", cf. NHG Ziel)


aim at vb - eye for, nought in,
tile (< OE tilian, NHG zielen)
air n/vb

wind, breath, loft; vb: broadcast; freshen

loft (<OE loft (through Old Norse),
cf. NHG Luft, Du. lucht),
lift (<OE lyft)

life's breath

air force n sky might, sky arm loft-weir, loftmight (cf. Du. luchtmacht), skyheer (< OED heer=army)
airplane/ aeroplane n wing craft, kite (slang), flightcraft flycraft (OE, floegan; loftcraft,
stycraft from OE: upstigen to move up rise ascend), wingwain, flysarrow, sarrowbird (sarrow - technical wonder)
airport n flight field (< Ice) landing field, sky harbor, landing strip flyfield, lofthub, lofthaven (calque)
airship n Zeppelin, skyship -
aisle n path, lane gangway
alarm clock n - waker (cf. NHG: Wecker, Du wekker)

wire-waker, wirerooster
lilter, uprouser, uprearer

alas interj alack, ay, woe welaway, lackaday, alack
albedo n - whiteness (<ME<OE hwitness),
whiteshine, glowwhite
albino n - whiteling
album n - whitebook

music album (f.b, Thriller): gleebook

albumen n egg white egg lime
alchemy n - orecraft
alcohol n booze, firewater wineghost
alcoholic adj boozer -
alcoholic n sot, drunkard, boozer malt-worm
alert adj awake, mindful, watchful; heedful, wary;
numble, sharp-witted; ready, willing
rathe (<OE rathe)
algorithm n - reckonwrit
alien n/adj way-out, fremd, outlandish, outsider; evil ghost, kidnapper Fremd (Eng./NHG. fremd), Elster, Elend, Otherling
alienate vb - Befremd (NHG. Befremden) see fremd
alienation n unfriendliness Befremding
align vb set up, fit, shape (into a line) -
allegiance n - truthness
allegory n likeness forlikening (Barnes)
allergy n - overfeeling, haysneezing,
fremdcasting (an allergic reaction casts out foreign cells such as pollens)
alleviate vb allay, lighten, soften -
alley n walk, lane, byroad, pathway, walkway, gangway, laneway, ginnel -
alliance n bond, band, tie -
allied adj banded, befriended fayed
alligator n - broadmouthnix
alliteration n - staverime, mate-penning (Barnes)
allocate vb earmark, let, deal out fordeal
allotment n - fordealing
allow vb let (Barnes), leave, give the green light for thwore (<OE þwárian)

thave (<OE þafian)

aleave (<OE ālīefan, cf. NHG erlauben)

allowable adj - thwaresome, thavesome
alloy n mix, blend, meld mastling
All Saints Day n Allhallowsmas, Hallowmas, All Hallows’ -
allude vb hint (at), touch (on), link (to), liken (to) anent
allure vb draw to, beguile, ensnare spane (<OE spanan), adwell
Ally n Ithoft, Ifolk, Ihild, Ifight, Ilie, Ilay
almanac n yearbook -
alphabet n

alphabet: futhorc

staverow (<OE stæfrǣw,
Ic. stafrófið, Fa. stavraðið),

runeline, runecraft, runebook,
staffhoard, runestaff

altar n weved (< OED, wigh bed, “holy bed”) giftboard, worship board
glowstead, gleedstead (<OE glédstede)
wighbed (< OE wigbed, “holy bed”)

harrow (<OE hearg, cf. OHG harug)

alter vb shift, wend frother (cf. Fr. feroar, Du. veranderen, NHG. verändern)
altercation n flite, brangle, brawl, row, dust-up -
alternate v waver, switch, become, shift -
alternative adj other -
altitude n height highmete, aloftness
altruism n selflessness -
altruistic adj selfless, unselfish -
aluminum/aluminium n canstuff
Alzheimers n the long goodbye (non-anglish: the slow funeral)
amass vb gather, heap, huddle mill
amateur n greenhorn, beginner, starter -
amazon n - bandfighters (calque of Old Persian *hamazan)

wyewoman (calque of Irish banghaiscíoch and Scottish Gaelic ban-laoch)

ambassador n - rikesboder, landspellsman
amber n - brimstone, glarestone, burnstone, elksand (<OE eolhsand)
ambidextrous adj both-handed, two-handed, either-handed umberight, umbecrafty, umbehandy
ambience n mood, feeling roomfeel
ambiguous adj - twiwordy (<OE twiwyrdig),
twisided (Barnes); twi-meaning.
twimeaning, unsifer,
ambiguity n - twiwordiness
ambivalence n - waver
ambivert n - twigoer
ambiverted adj - twigoing
ambulance n - sickwain crankwain (<NHG Krankenwagen)
ambulant adj roving, wandering, wayfaring -
ambush n/ vb net, web; waylay (Barnes), forlay inbush
ameliorate vb better eather
amen interj


soothly (<OE soþlice) so be it (used in the early English Reformation), true dat (colloquial), yelayay

America n New World
Markland (<OE mearcland "borderland,"
cognate to ON markland,
the name given by Leif Eriksson to a
Labrador shoreline; the element m a r k incidentally
shares the same three
consonant sounds as A m e r i c a)

Westlands, Redlands

amicable adj friendly, hail-fellow-well-met blithe
amigo n friend -
ammonia n - hartshorn
amnesia n blackout eftmind loss
amoeba n - shapeshifter, slimebrick,
slimedeer (cf. Ic. slímdýr)
amorphous adj shapeless -
amount n score, lot, whit, deal (Barnes) -
amount vb come up bedraw (cf. NHG betragen, Du. bedragen)
ampersand n - andtoken
amphibian n - lurrow (cf. NHG Lurche), shoredeer,
frogdeer (cf. Ic. froskdýr)
amphibious adj - two-breathed (Barnes)
amphitheater n - playstow, umbewitstow
ample adj broad, large, roomy
amplifier n - forstronger
amplify vb - outbroaden (Barnes)
amplitude n breadth, reach, width -
amputate v cut (off) rend, snithe,
forcarve (Barnes), belimb
amusement n fun, game, fun and games
amusing adj - listing
anachronism n mistiming (Barnes) -
anaconda n - whipsnake
anaesthetic adj unsightly dwale
anagram n - stavewrixel
anal adj bottom, ?bum — arsely, arsen
analgesic n numbing andwark
analogue adj gear-driven -
analogy n - alikeword
analyze vb look at forloosen (Barnes); think through,
unthread, unriddle.

Onlight, Onseek,

Forloosen, Uploosen, Upsunder

Nease (<OE to search, to find out by inquiry) Onnease, Anease

anarchism n/adj - lawlessholth, lawlesshood
anarchy n lawlessness

redelacking, ethellessness
chaos: dwolma (<OE)

anastomosis n shunt -
anathema n - forputting (calque Gk. anathema)
anatomy n - bodylore
ancestor n forebearer (Barnes)
forefather (Barnes)
elder, forerunner
fore-elder (Barnes)



foreolder (cf. Du. voorouder)

ancestry n strain, seed,
bloodties, house
ancient adj hoary, olden, old-time

foreold (Barnes)

fern (<OE fyrn)

orold (calque of NHG uralt),

ancient times n yoretide -
andiron n firedog firegoat
androgyny n -

werewifehood (Calque of the Greek + "hood")

android n - manhue/werehue (cf. Greek andros 'man' and oeidēs 'hue' (<OE hiw))
anemometer n - windmeter (Barnes)
anemone n - windrose
anesthesia n - unfeeler (calque)

number (one who numbs)

angel n - rotherer, errandghost (<OE ærendgást)
anger? n ire, wrath, scorn greme (<OE grama);
'anger' O.N. loanword circa 1220AD
angle n nook, bight, winkle nookspan, nookwidth, hook,
hurn (<OE hyrne),
whem (<OE hwemm)
angry adj wrathful, uptight, waspish -
anguish n woe, sorrow, heartbreak, heartache, throe angsomeness, bosom-hell
angular adj - nook-shot, sharp-nooked,
straight-edged, hyrned (<OE hyrnen), edgy
animal n being deer, wight (<OE wiht), wilder,
soulend, livle, nite (<OE nēat),
neat (from OE, like neatsfoot oil),
neatenkind (<OE)
animate vb liven, enliven
literary: quicken (Barnes)
besoul (cf. NHG beseelen, Du. bezielen)
animation n drawn film -
anime n - dawnlandish livedrawing
animosity n hate(red) -
annals n - year-bookings
annelid n ringworm -
annex vb - onend (on+end) (cf. NHG Anschluss)
annihilate vb wipe out, fornaughten (Barnes)

benothing (Eng.)

annihilation n wrecking fornaughting, spild (OE)
anniversary n yearday, yeartide (Barnes), Frealstide (<OE a festival of the church, an anniversary), Year-imind (<OE) mind day (<OE gemynddaeg)
Anno Domini adv in the year of our lord -
annotate vb mark bemark
annotation n marking bemarking (NGH Bemerkung)
announce vb ban, bode, bid, kithe forcouth (<OE cýðan, cf. NHG verkünden)
meld (<OE meldian, cf. NHG./Du. melden)

forthspell, spell out

announcement n - oncouthing (cf. NHG Ankündigung)
annoy vb irk (Barnes), nettle -
annoying adj irksome (Barnes) -
annual adj yearly -
annual n yearbook -
annul vb fordo, call off -
annuli astronomici n Gemma's Rings -
anoint v smear, salve (<MW, cf. OE sealf & cf. NHG. Salbe; do not confuse with Latin homonym) anele,
throughsmear (<OE þūrhsmyrian)
anonymous adj nameless, unnamed, unknown -
anorexia nervosa n - foodshy, eatshy, fastlust
antagonist n

fiend, foe

witherling, gainstander
antarctic n southend -
Antarctica n South End South Hern, Underland
antecedence n beforemath, foregoing -
antediluvian adj - foreflood
Ante Meridiëm phr Before Midday (calque) -
antelope n pronghorn (specifically American antelopes) sawhorn (old word antelope)
anterior adj foreward; foregoing, former -
anterior n fore, foreside -
anthem n - folksong (cf. NHG./Du. volkslied)
anthocyanin n - flowerblue
anthology n reader fayness
Anthropocene n Mantide
anthropology n - theedlore, manlore, werelore
anti- n wither-, with-, gain- off-
anti-vaxx adj - wither-imp
antibiotic n gainrodlifeanwork
antisemite adj Jew-hater -
anticipate vb foretell, foresee -
anticlockwise adj/adv widdershins withclockwise, withershins
antics n - odd behaveness, childishness
anticonstitutionally adv - witherlawwritly
antidisestablishmentarianism n - gainunstathelingmanness
antidote n - atterloathe (<ME atterllothe)
antigen n - offweirstuff
antihero n - gainheleth, withheleth, witherheleth
antilope n - buck (cf. Afr. bok)


antimatter n - gainstuff, witherstuff,
unbeing, unstuff
antipathy n mislike -
antipope n gainfather (cf. NHG gegenpapst)
antiquated adj careworn, timestruck -
antique n/adj eldern -
antiquity n olden days;
oldness, eldnerliness

afern (OE fyrn 'former, ancient')

antiseptic adj - withersmite
anti-statism n -


anti-statist adj - witherlawmootish
anti-statist n - leedward witherling
antitoxin n - gainatter
antler n - blowhorn (<OE blōwan)
antonym n - witherword
gainword (cf. NHG gegenwort)
anulus n ring -
anus n arsehole(vulgar), asshole (American, vulgar; note that arse is not said as often in America) arse-thirl (OE: earsþerl); back-tharm;


anxiety n worry, fear angness, angens, angs
aorta n - loftleat
apart adj cleaved, sundered, shedded -
apart from adv aside, asunder -
apartment n flat, room, by-room woning (cf. NHG Wohnung)
apathetic adj samewise -
aperture n opening, breech, hole -
apex n tip, yop, top -
aphid n greenfly, blackfly wortlice
aphrodisiac n - lustdrive
apogee n - hightip
apologise vb say sorry

forshild, unshild (cf. Du. verontschuldigen, NHG. entschuldigen, see shild)

apology n sorry rueword, sorroword, belading (<OE)
defense: besaying, forespeech (<OE forespræċ)
apostle n errand-bearer errander, errand-wakener (OE ærendwrecca), sendling (cf. NHG 'Sendling'),
fro-sent (Sir John Cheke)
apothecary n - leefwinkle (leef 'medicine', see Ic. lyf)
apparel n clothes, wear, threads, weed glad rags, donnings, step-outs
apparent adj seeming eyeshinely (cf. NHG. augenscheinlich, Du. ogenschijnlijk)
apparently adv/phr seemingly, at first sight, in name only, on the outside, openly, to the eye, as it shows staringly, eyeshinely (cf. NHG. augenscheinlich, Du. ogenschijnlijk)
appeal vb call (upon) ask, beckon, clepe
appealing adj fair, winsome, sightly -
appear vb show up, beseem tew up (cf. OE ætīwan, ætywan), forshine (cf. Du. verschijnen, NHG. erscheinen)
appearance n

blee, look, cast, hue

leer, eyeshine (NHG. Augenschein)
appease vb soothe, allay frithen
appellation n name -
appendage n limb -
appendicitis n - blindgut addle
appendix n - organ: blindgut, blindtharm (cf. Fr. blineterm, NHG Blinddarm)
book: tack-on, onhang (cf. NHG Anhang)
appetite n craving, hunger -
appetizer n starter foremeal
application n bearing, putting-on -
applause n standing and clapping byfall (cf. NHG Beifall, Du. bijval)
apply vb beseech, lay on, spread bewharve (cf. NHG bewerben, see wharve)
appoint vb afix, set up, earmark,
deem, settle, name
wend out
appreciate v be thankful
apprehension n foreboding, misgiving -
apprentice n beginner, learner learnend
approach vb near, be nigh, draw near to, come forth, creep up on nighletch (<OE neahlæcan)
approach n means, way
approaching adj nearing, forthcoming, upcoming, oncoming nighleching
appropriate adj befitting, seemly, meet roadly (cf. OE geradlic)
approve v let, bid

approve of: laud

approximate adj rough, near, loose -
approximately adv about, roughly, nearly, nigh umb
appurtenance n - sidemarking, nethermark
April n - Eastermonth
apron n - barmcloth
apt adj fit deve (<OE defe),
yroadly (<OE ġerādliċ)
aquaculture n fish-farming -
aqualung n - waterlung
aquamarine adj seagreen -
aquaphobia n - waterfear
aquaphobic adj afraid of (the) water -
aquaplaning n - watergliding
aquarium n - fishglass, waterglass
aquatic adj waterly -
aqueduct n - waterleat
aqueous adj watery, water like, water bearing -
arable adj - ploughsome
arachnid n - eight-legger
arboreal adj - treewise
arbitrary adj whimsy fallenly (cf. Du. toeval)
willkirely (<OE willa + cyre 'choice' + 'līc)
arboretum n - treestead
arc n bow -
arcade n - playhall (cf. Du. speelhal, NHG Spielhalle)
arch n Biel (<OE Bígel) bow
archaeology n - olddomlore, (cf. NHG Altertumskunde) delvelore, fernfrod (cf. Ic. fornleifafræði)
archaeopterix n - stoneset orfowl (cf. NHG Urvogel)
stonelayed oldenwing
archaic adj. timeworn forold (Eng., cf. NHG. veraltet)
archangel n - high-ghost
archer n bowman bowyer, shooter (<OE scytta, cf. NHG. Schütze, Du. schutter)
archery n bowmanship bowcraft
archipelago n - itune (<OE ieg 'island' + tun), island cluster.
architect n highcrafter (<OE)
architecture n shell, framework buildlore, buildcraft, timberlore, timbercraft, orshafting
architrave n - silebeam
archive n backup leafwritsam (cf. Ic. 'skjalasafn'), logsam, deedsam, writsam, backlog
arctic adj - bear- (Ursa Minor), far-northern
Arctic n Land of the Midnight Sun northend, Northland
ardour n keenness, lust hotheartedness (<OE hatheortnes)
area n land, landspan, swathe, ard (<OE), snad, sned (<OE), yard field of knowledge: breadth
argent n silver -
Argentina n - Silverland
argon n lazystuff
arguable adj moot sakebere
argue vb flite, wrestle, squabble, wrangle, bicker, tilt chide
argument n flite, fightback, comeback, back-answer, answer rake (<OE racu)
aridity n drought, dryness rainlack, dryth
aristocrat n blue-blood rikeborn, richard, wealthman
aristocratic adj full-blooded, highborn, highbred rikeborn, richborn, athelborn
arithmetic n - tellcraft (<OE getælcræft)
arm vb - beweapon
arm n - handweapon
armadillo n - shellbear, shieldling, girdledeer (cf. NHG Gürteltier, Du. gordeldier)
armillary sphere n - ringkuggle
arming n - weaponing, outrysting (cf. NHG Ausrüstung)
armistice n truce weaponstandstill (cf. NHG Waffenstillstand)
armo(u)r n shield, byrnie, Iweapon, Iweaponings (<OE), Gouthreaf, Gouthsear, Gouthsare (<OE) shieldwear, shieldcloth, helmcladding, heraweed (<OE herewǣde), firedskeerp (<OE fierdsceorp), rysting (<OE hyrstan, cf. NHG Rüstung), hereclad
armo(u)r vb begear, beshield, ryst/rist (<OE hrystan, cf. NHG rüsten) iron (<OE ísenian)
armory n shieldhouse shieldwearhouse, helmcladdenhouse, heraweedhouse, firedskeerphouse, weaponhouse (<OE wæpenhūs), rysthouse
army n fyrd, ferd, landfyrd hera, landferd, dright, weremight, ganghere (foot men), thrim (<OE þrymm; cf. MnE trim), here (<OE ​here), herg
aroma n smell duft
around prep, adj, adv about um, umb, umbe
arouse vb stir, awake, arear -
arquebus n matchlock, firelock hookbox (cf. MLG hake + busse, MHG Hakenbüchse), hookgun (calque, historical), matchgun
arrange vb fix, set, settle; draw up, lay out, Endbeird (<OE), Fade (<OE) stight
arrangement n layout -
array vb lay out, set out -
arrest vb nab, avast, halt, stop -
arrive at vb reach, come upon, get to oncome (<OE ancuman)
arrogant adj proud, highhanded, overbearing, overweening lonk (<OE wlank)
arsenal n - weaponhoard
arsonist n fire-raiser firestarter
art n craft list (calque)
artery n - loftblood adder
artesian adj - thringrising
argon n - idlestuff
arthritis n - lithbollow (cf. Ic. Liðbólga)
artichoke n - eatthistle (cf. Ic. ætiþistill)
article n thing, write-up writ
grammar: lithword (cf. Du. lidwoord)
artificer n maker, craftsman, smith, wright worldcrafter (<OE woruldcræfta)<vr />pl: worldcraftren (<OE woruldcræftan)
artificial adj manmade, craftly -
artillery n gunware -
artisan n craftsman, wright, handyman -
art(s), artistry n craft, deftness, handiwork -
Asatru(ar) (maður) n - Esetroth(er), Ostroth(er)
asbestos n - thrumstone, stone-flax, earthflax,
(sl) devil dust, devil's dust.
ascend vb climb, sty -
Ascension Day n - Gang-Day (<OE gangdæg)
ascent n upgoing, rise upgang (Brit.)
asexual n - swiveless
Asia n the East easterngreatland
Asian (race) n yellow (vulgar slang) Eastern, Far-Eastern
asparagus n sparrowgrass earth navel (<OE eorðnafela)
asphalt n - streettar
aspin n philipdog
assail vb scathe lay into col.; raid, storm -
assassin n hitman, murderer -
assault v onset, onrush, beset onfall (Eng, NHG. Anfall)
assault n onset, onrush, besetting

andfeng (<OE) Obs.

onfall (Eng., NHG. Anfall)

assemble vb cleave, gather,
huddle, band
frame, build,
set up, forgather
sam, samen
(<OE samnian,cf. ON samna,
NHG sammeln, Du. zamelen),
evencome (<OE efencuman)
assembly n forgathering, ingathering, meeting; church,
get-together, huddle
moot (<OE gemot)

samening (<OE samnung), leedstefen (<OE léodstefn),
thing (dead sense of OE þing,
shifted to be meant "object" by c. 1300.
Still retained in NHG Sache,
which has both meanings.) day (cf. NHG -tag, SW -dag), daying (cf. NHG tagung, SW dagen)

assent n - samethick (cf. SW. samtycke, IC. samþykki, Dan./Norw. samtykke)
asset n holding -
assiduous adj hopping, tied-up, working workfast
assign vb allot, deed, trust -
assimilate vb - inblend, uptake/upnim (cf. NHG. aufnehmen)
assist vb help, bestead, prop up, Fultum (<OE) filst (<OE fylstan)
assistance n help, backing, helping hand, lift filst (<OE fylst)

midhelp (<OE midhelp),
atstall (<OE ætstæl)
fultum (<OE fultum),
byhelp (cf. NHG Beihilfe)

assistant n helper

filstend (<OE fylstend)
atstandand (<OE ætstandend)

association n hookup, linkup, tie-up;
brotherhood, guild,
club, fellowship
forband (cf. NHG Verband)

dowiþ (< OE dōn + wiþ)

assume vb deem; foreguess, bear, shoulder, undertake,

Inim [OE ge-nyman: to take up, to take on, assume]

(<OE hycgan 'bear in mind,
confide, trust) smigh (<OE smēagan
'consider think about mediate examine scrutinize')

behowe (<OE behawian),
ettle (<OE eahtian)

assure vb - forsaeka (<SW försäkra 'to insure; to get an insurance for', to ensure; to make certain, to assure; to give someone confidence in the trustworthiness of something)
aster n - starbloom
asterisk n star starling; starkin
asteroid n - roomrock, rock wanderer
asthma n - angbreast (<OE angbreost)
astonish vb astound, dumbfound,
amaze, bewilder,
bewonder, startle, baffle
astonished n astounded, dumbfounded,
amazed, bewildered,
bewondered, startled
offwondered (<OE ofwundrod)
astonishing adj amazing, astounding,
blindsiding, eye-opening
startling; stunning, wonderful
astral adj - rotherly (<OE rodor), starly, star-
astrarium n - tungletimer
Astrarium of Giovanni
Dondi dell'Orologio
n - liefbound tungletimer
astrolabe n - starreckoner
astrology n starcraft tungle sway,
tungleshed (<OE tungolgescead)
astronaut n - starman, heavensfarer, skyfarer, skytaker
astronomy n starlore, starlooking heavenlore
astute adj shrewd, cunning,
sharp, quick-witted
yepe (<OE geap)
asymmetrical adj lopsided -
asylum n grith, haven; madhouse -
asymptote n - ameetend
atavism n throwback -
atelier n workshop -
atheïsm n godlessness -
atheïst adj godless liefless, unliefsome,
-ative suffix - -ingly
atlas n - land book
atmosphere n -

welkin, lofthelm (<OE lyfthelm) Welkintrindle, Lofttrindle, Ethem (<OE meaning, breath, air atmosphere)

atom n grot (ME, <OE  grōt, "particle") formote, uncleft
atrocious adj frightful; rotten. -
atrophy n withering, dying, waning -
attack n onslaught, onset,
onrush, strike, blow, hit
hildrush, onshot

(<OE ongrype,
cf. NHG Angriff)

attack vb raid, rush, strike, Bestorm -
attack helicopter n - strikenchopper
attain vb reach -
attempt n bid, crash, fling, go,
shot, whack, whirl
cunning, fanding, minting
attempt vb seek cun (<OE cunnian), fand, mint
attend vb hearken, mind;
care, oversee, watch
attendant n steward thew, theen,
atstandand (<OE ætstandend)
attention n heed, mind, aught bemarking
attest vb witness; swear; bear out Beshine (NHG. bescheinigen)

Besteady (NHG. bestätigen)

attic n loft thackroom
attire n cladding -
attitude n standing, outlook, mood, ways, behaving installing (cf. Du. instelling)
attorney n lawman -
attract vb draw, draw in

span (<OE spannan),
adwell (<OE adwellan)

attractive adj comely, fair, good-looking, handsome, winsome, sightly wlitty (<OE wlitig)
attraction n wondersight
attribute n ownship -
aubergine n - eywort, wind-healing wort
(calque from Sanskrit)
auction n - biddingsale
audacious adj daring, bold, ballsy,
fearless, unafeared, cheeky,
dare-all, dareful, unfearing, reckless
audacity n gall, guts, mettle
hardihood, hardiness
boldness, balls
audible adj - hearly, hearsome
audience n hearing, listeners greetinghouse (<OE)
audio n loud listenet (listen+ -et, cf. Eng. thicket)
augment vb eke bemore
August n - Weedmonth
augury n - ontoken
aunt n - father's sister:
fathe (<OE Faðe or Faðu), Vaster
mother's sister:
modrey, mothrey (<OE Modrige or Modrie), Muster,

faye (<OE faþe "father's sister")

aurora n

dawning, daylight

aurora australis n southern lights -
aurora borealis n northern lights -
aurum n gold yellow dust
auscultation n harkening lossening
(<OE hlosnian: to listen wait
be on the lookout for)
austere adj - yarewit
austerity n hardliness tighthold
Autism n selfdom
Australia n - Andland (cf. H Ic.
proposal 'Andland,' found here ); the Sutherlands, the Southern lands (from Latin "terra australis")
Austria n Austrick (Scots) Easternrick (<OHG Osterrici,
cf. NHG 'Österreich)
autarchy n thralldom owndom; selfrike, selfkingdom; selfreevedom; ownrike; thrallreevedom
author n writer bookwright
authentic adj true -
authority n headship, shark; deathgrip elderdom (<OE ealdordóm)

learnedom (<OE láréowdóm)

auto- pref self- -
autodidact adj selftaught selflearned
automaker n wainwright -
automatic adj


gunning: self-loading,
half-tilt, full-tilt

machinery: selfworking, selfdriving; selfdriven
automobile n - selfshifter (calque)
autonomy n - selflaw, selfstanding
autonym n selfname -
autopsy n - open bodyunderseeching, deathreading
Autotune n Selftune
autumn n fall till, harvest
auxiliary adj backup, fallback-, helping eke
avail vb - dow (< archaic NE dow
<ME duʒen < OE dugan;
cf. Sc. dow )

frim, miling

available adj free, in stock,
at hand, forthcoming
arworthsome (calque),
athandsome, atputsome
avalanche n snowslide bergfall, fellfall
avant garde n forhead -
avant garde adj cutting edge -
avarice n greed yetsing (<OE gitsung)
avatar n - fleshbilth
avenge vb wreak -
avenue n - drive
average adj mean, middling -
avert vb forestall, head off, stave off mithe, forecome, offwend,
umbewend (redirect)
aviary n birdhouse, birdstow. -
aviation n flight flyingcraft
aviator n birdman, flyer loftman, rotherer
avid adj raring -
avocado n butter pear; soft apple -
avoid vb miss, shun, ware

stay away, keep away

mithe (obs.), forecome,
sedge (<OE ġesecgan)

umgang, umgo
(cf. NHG umgehen)

(see um-)

avow vb swear, trow, own yea-say
award vb bestow, acknowledge -
axis n axle, shaft -
azimuth n - south hern (cf. Ic. Attarhorn)
Aztec n Heronlander (A person from Aztlan, which literally means 'a place of herons')
Aztec adj Heronlandish
azure adj haw (ME <OE hæwen) swail, blee
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