Staff E of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
eager adj earnest, keen, hungry, yearning, yearnsome -
eagle n earn, gythfowl -
earphone(s) n headset, earbud(s) (<OE budd, “beetle”), earspeaker(s) earset, earswan
ease n lightheartedness eath (Scots)
ease vb allay (alay), unburden, unlade, smoothen, sooth, quell -
easy adj smooth, downhill, hands-down, light, not hard, eath, eathy, struggleless, unburdensome, unwearisome onefold, eath (<OE ieþe)
eau de cologne n rosewater settingwater (calque). duft, kolnwater (Lower Anglish)
eau de parfum n rosewater duft, ilmwater (cf. Ic Ilmvatn)
eau de toilette n rosewater duft, cride water
ebony adj/n blackwood -
ebullition n outburst, flare-up, blowup, frothing -
eccentric adj odd, far-out, crazy, kooky, offbeat, off-the-wall, outlandish, queer, way-out, weird, wild sparky
eccentric n odd sunderling (cf. Du. zonderling, NHG Sonderling)
ecclesiastical adj churchly, church -
echelon n rung -
echo n - witherclank, backwave, witherwave, woodmare, windmare (<OE wudu-mær, windu-mær)
lesser saying/doing again: wannabe, shadow
verb: send back, wave back
eclipse vb/n hide, darken, outshine (does not mean “eclipse!”) overshadowing, forshadowing, fullhiding
ecology n wonelore (Like Ice. vistfræði, <OE roots)
economics n trade, dealing, husbandry, stewardship; shopping wealthlore, houselore/householdlore, shophouselore (partial cf. Greek), housekeeping, goldlore
economy n wealthdom, stewardship, the shop; thrift, cutback householding (cf. Du. huishouding); shophouse

of a nation: landwealth

Worthship (cf. NHG Wirtschaft)

ecosystem n living earth lifeweb, lifeworld
ecstatic adj athrill, upbeat, beside oneself, blissful overthrilled
ectoplasm n - evilslime, evilscum, witch’s slime/mud, nicorslime, nitheslime
ecumenopolis n - worldborough, all-shire
edda n hoard, book, lore; greatmother weth (<OE woþ), lorebook
edelweiss n silver star athelwhite
edible adj eating, fit to eat, well eaten, “good eats” eatsome, eatskilled, eatworthy
edifice n building, house outwork (<OE geweorc)
edify vb build up, bulwark, bolster intimber (<OE intimbrian)
edifying adj teaching, uplifting, mindworthy, bolstering -
edit vb comb, rake, comb through, rake through, work over bework (cf. Du. bewerken), by-draft, write, work through, wend
edition n combing, raking, utttering (“publication,” OED), output, cast, stock outlaying
issue: begiving
publication: foropening (cf. NHG veröffenlichung), forlaying (cf. NHG verlegen)
educate vb teach, lere (<OE læran, cf. Du. leren, NHG lehren; in OED but obsolete, alt. spelling lear, Scottish leir/leyr); learn (dialectal, stigmatized) atee, bilth (cf. NHG bilden), tee (<OE ateon; cf. NHG erziehen), belearn
educated adj learned, well read, well taught bewised; bilthed (cf. NHG gebildet)
education n learning, teaching, book-learning lorecraft, lore, bewising, upbuilding, bilthing (cf. NHG Bildung)
educator n teacher, loreman, lore keeper, upbuilder teer (cf. NHG Erzieher), lorer
educe vb outbring, outdraw, draw out, bring out, hand down the lore bespell
-ee sfx -end, -ling, -ed -
effect n aftermath, backwash, outcome, fallout, upshot; mark, sway -
effective adj handy, good, winning overtful
effectuate v bring about, win out
effeminate adj womanlike, womanly, unmanly, weak; bottom (vulgar) she-like, underlyer
effervescent adv fizzy, bubbling, bubbly, lively, frothing, -
efficacious adj handy, working, winning winful
efficacy n handiness winfulness
effort n swink, sweat, while, work onstrength, onstronging (cf. NHG Anstrengung, Du. inspanning, Sw. ansträngning, and others), elbow fat
effrontery n shamelessness, brazenness -
e.g. abbr. - f.b., 'for busen' or 'for byspel' (cf. NHG z.B., zum Beispiel)
egalitarianism n evenhandedness, meekness evenhood, flackhood, evennessdom; flattening, crushing; belief in sameness; hatred
egg (<ON) n ey (pl. eyren) -
ego n bighead, pride, stuffed shirt

psychology: self, I (cf. Greek))

egocentric adj selfish, self-bemiddled, stuffed shirt -
egoïsm n selfishness, self-worship, shirt-stuffing self-mindedness
egotistic adj bigheaded, overweening, proud, stuck-up, boastful, self-worshiping, selfish self-minded
egregious adj gross, striking -
egressive adj outflowing; crapped out, crappy; leaking, dripping; leaching -
Egypt n - Two Narrows, Egipt (<OE)
Ancient: Blackland, Bankland

Niland ("Nile Land")

Egyptian adj Egyptish (<OE Egyptisċ)
ejaculate vb spout, toss, cast out; jizz (slang), cum/come (slang, vulgar) indrive (<OE indrífan); outseed
eject vb cast out, kick out, throw out, turf out -
elaborate adj spelled out; thorough, thought through swotel, overwrought
elastic adj rubbery, springy, stretchy, stretching, whippy stretchingly
elate vb uplift, stir up, gladden -
elect vb choose, wale forechoose (cf. Du. verkiezen), will (<PIE welh₁-, "to choose, wish", same root with wale), cure (<OE cyre, "choice, choosing, free will")
election n choosing; the wale corenness, chosenness (cf. OE corennes)

curewale, curewill

elector n fyrstin (or firstin), waler, willer, curer
electorate n fyrstinship/firstinship, waledom, waleship, cureship, curedom
electric adj - sparkalne, sparkly, sparkwork (an electrician is often called a 'sparky'), glarum (<OE glærum ... dat. pl. for amber), thunderwork, thundery, stream-, streamfed
electrician n sparky sparksmith, wire-puller
electricity n - alneflow (alne, “energy” OED), alnestream; streamwork, streaming; sparkflow,sparkstream, lightflow, wattflow, thunderflow, thundermight, thundersprack, ghostfire (Ic.), Faraday's candle; lightkin.
electrocution n - sparkbite, sparkfang; sparkdeath
electromagnetism n - sparkdraught, streamloading; sparklodestonedom
electromagnetic adj - sparkdrawing, streamladen, streamloaded, sparklodestonely
electro-mechanical adj - sparkworkcraftly
electron n - lightbit, sparkling, sparkmote

amberling, glarumod (glarum+od ... see talk)

electronic adj - lightfed; sparklingly, sparkmotely, sparkworkish
elegant(ce) n/adj trim(ness), handsome smicker (<OE smicer)
element n - eredust (ere ~ NHÞ ‘’ur,’’ “original,” dust = “matter”), erestuff, firststuff, shaftroot, dealock (<deal, a part, + -ock, diminutive ending, <OE -uc)
elephant n tusker elp, armnoser, limbnoser
elevate vb lift, lift up, uppen, hoist, heave up, raise aloofen, aheave (<OE āhebban and <ME ahebben)
elevation n height, loftiness, heaving -
elevator n lift, lifter -
elite n best, top-notch (social elite:) swelldom, toprank
elite adj picky athel-like
ellipse n - ringshadow, wheelshadow
ellipsis n - outlettingtoken (cf. NHG Auslassungszeichen; may also mean apostrophe), belettelsetoken (cf. Du. beletselteken), throughdots (cf. Du. doorlooppuntjes), threedot
elocution n - talecraft (OE talu; this would mean “the art of story-telling”); speechcraft, uttercraft
elongate vb lengthen, stretch -
eloquent adj silver-tongued, well-spoken quedle (<OE cwedol), wordskilled (cf. NHG wortgewandt)
eloquence n - wordskillness, wellspokenness
emaciated adj weak, worringly thin, bare-boned. -
emaciation n - bare-bonedness
email n/vb - wirewrit
emanate vb cast, give out, send out; out wave outstreal (cf. NHG ausstrahlen)
emasculate vb unman -
embarrass vb shame; faze -
embassy n sent men, errand men; tidings, news
embassy (house) n - sentmenhouse, errandhouse; tidingshouse, newshouse
embody vb inbody, inflesh -
embrace vb fathom, hug befathom (< OE befæþman), umbclip (<OE ymbclippan)
embroidery n needlework, needlecraft -bleecraft (OE)
embryo n - wightblossom, womb-berry, new kin
emerald adj/n - greenhurst, high-green
emerge vb come up, crop up, spring up kythe, forthkythe
emergency n need needstand, needfall (cf. NHG Notstand, Notfall)
emigrant n - outgoer, outwanderer
eminence n height, hill, knoll, link, mound, barrow, hurst, down, wold -
emissary n - sentman (Ice. sendiman); offsent (cf. NHG Abgesandte)
emit vb spout; forthsend, give out, send out, shine, give off, outsend -
emotion n stirring, feeling; warmth, white heat soulgrip, heartgrip
emotional adj stirring, heartfelt; overwrought, worked up -
emotional attention adj "sad-fishing" - the practice of writing about one's unhappiness or emotional problems on social media, especially in a vague way, in order to attract attention and sympathetic responses.
empathy n fellow-feel, samefeel -
emperor n king of kings, head highking (cf. Manx ard-ree), highwield (wield < OE walda), caser (<OE), overlord, highcaser (<OE)
emphasize vb underscore, highlight -
empire n - richdom (<OE ricedom, cf. OHG rihhituom), anweald (<OE), rich, caserdom, rike (<ME); overdom, riche (<ME)
empiricism n - fandlieving
employ vb hire, hight, enthrall; own -
employee n underling, hireling, worker, staff, knave, churl, thrall, henchman, hightman -
employer n hirer heerman (“captain,” order giver), workgiver (cf. Du. werkgever, Af. werkgewer)
employment n - hiring, swinkhood, thralldom
empress n - highqueen (cf. Manx ard-venrein), casern (<OE)
emulate vb ape, poppinjay, follow after; underfollow -
emulsion n forblending, waterbutter -
en- pref

in-, on-, be-

umb-, um-
enable vb let, allow; strengthen -
endow vb bequeath, give an income
enact vb belaw; hight umdo
enchant vb spellbind; wile, bewitch, hex bewile
enchantment n bliss; spell, witchcraft, hex bewiling
enchantress n witch hexwoman
encircle vb begird, beclip, beset, gird, gird about, enring, inring, ring about, loop umwreathe, umring (cf. NHG umringen); set aring, bering, enbee (bee = “circle”)

umbgird (<OE ymbgyrdan)

enclose vb bound, enfold, enwrap, impound, pen, hedge, hem in, wall in umbfold, umbgo (<OE ymbgān and <ME umbegōn)
enclosure n haw, pen, paddock, field, yard, earth -
encode vb overset; bestave -
encompass vb hold, deal with, take in; ring, girdle inwreath, umhold, bethring (<OE beþringan), belouk (<ME Bilouketh), umbgo (<OE ymbgān and <ME umbegōn)
encounter vb meet, go against; live through, undergo -
encourage vb stouten, strengthen, bolster, give heart to, hearten on, mood on, foster, upprop, help, egg on, goad, spur, will on bield (<OE bieldan), alne (OED), beborough (fortify)
encouragement n - stoutening, alne (OED)
encroachment n overstep, inroads overstepping
encryption n stave hiding forkeying
encumber vb block, burden, hinder, weigh down, hold back, tie up -
encumbrance n burden, hindering, faltering -
encyclopedia n - allkennbook (Nynorsk: alkunnebok), worldkenning, wisdombook (<OE wīsdōmbōc), all-lore, upslagwork (Swedish: uppslagsverk), upslagbook (Swedish: uppslagsbok)
encyclopedic n all-in, in-depth, thorough all-lorish, all-knowing
endeavor vb undertake, seek inbework
endeavor n - ettel
endoplasm b inmold (loanshift of Greek endo (within), plasma (mold)
endoplasmic reticulum n - lifebrick net, lifebrick web, inmould net
endorse vb stamp, back up
endow vb gift; underwrite, give indow
endowment n knack, gift life-gift
endure vb last, hold out, abear, withstand, undergo, bear, keep on, put up with, hold through, stand through, bear through dree (<OE drēogan), thole, raven (<OE ræfnian)

overstand (<OE oferstandan and akin to NHG überstehen)

endurance n strength, alne, doggedness; lastingness dreeing, tholing, throughholding, throughbearing, throughstanding, ever-abidingness
enduring n ever-abidibg
enemy n foe, foeman, fiend, the other side

fiendsheathe (<OE fēondsceaða), scathe (<OE scaða)
boastful: yelpsheathe (<OE ġielpsceaða)

energetic adj goey -
energy n alne (OED), fire; work, flow, beans, drive

feel energetic: feel one's oats

alne, caveness (<OE cāfnes), fromship (<OE framscipe) dodrive, inwork (calque), spring, go, might, workfire
enervate vb unman, weaken, unsettle, faze body-drain, unalne
enforce vb helmstand, wield -
engaged adj working, busy, tied up; betrothed, pledged
engine n craft; means, gearwork, burner gearwork, iron horse
engineer n wright, sarrow wright (“miracle” or technology-designer), craftsman -
enigma n riddle, brainteaser -
enjoy vb (intrans.) wen; gladden oneself, have lust, be gleeful over;

(trans.) like, belove

enjoyment n wen; fun, gladness, happiness brooking (<OE brucan), neeting (<OE neotan, cf. NHG genießen)
enlarge vb swell, greaten, biggen forgreaten (cf. NHG vergrößern)
en masse adv in bulk -
enmity n foedom, hatred, bitterness, ill will faught (<OE fæhþ), fiendship (<OE feondscipe and akin to NHG Feindschaft)
ennui n boredom, tiredness, listlessness wanfeeling
enrich vb make wealthy, richen ("rich" was semantically influenced by French, but from a native Germanic root) wealy (<OE weligian "to enrich", derived from welig "rich, wealthy")
enrichment n - wealying (see above)
en route phrase on the way -
ensnare vb grin (obsolete or dialectal, <OE noun grin akin to grīn "snare") swarl
ensue vb follow, come after -
ensure vb see to it sicker (Eng., calque of Ger. speeches)

sickerstell, sickerput, sickermake (calque of all Ger. speeches) (see stell)


vb go into, come into, step into, begin, in fare
data entry: key in, input
ingo, intread, betread (calque of Ger. speeches)
enterprise n business, undertaking; readiness, get-up-and-go, goey undernimming
entreprising n goey -
entheogen n holyspring
enthusiasm n white heat; keenness, warmth, thrill bedrivenness, listfulness, lustfulness, felelust, felelist
entice vb draw to, spur, goad, wheedle, sweet talk forlead (<OE forlǽdan, cf. NHG verleiten)
entire adj whole, full; sound, unharmed, without a scratch -
entirely adv fully, thoroughly, outright, wholly, altogether -
entirety n whole, fullness, all-hood, alhood. all-whole,
entitle vb let, brook (not to be confused with brook as in used), give right, have right bid (opposite of forbid), aleave (<OE aliefan), bename (cf. NHG betitelen)
entitled adj upstart, highbrow, overbearing, high-handed, full of oneself, above oneself, (slang terms) stuck-up, snooty, hoity-toity, uppity, uppish, big-headed, high and mighty, la-di-da -
entitled adj (p.p.) named, called, yclept, ycleped (poetic), deemed hight (<OE hatan)
entrail n innard -
entrance n key, doorway, in faring, ingang, way in inway
vb bewitch, spellbind -
entrap (non-Germanic prefix) vb forset intrap
entreat vb -
entreaty n -
entrepreneur n business(wo)man, undertaker -
entry n threshold, way in, gateway; headword, infaring, ingang inway
enumerate vb - outtell (cf. NLG uttellen, NHG auszählen), sum up, upsum (cf. Du. opsommen)
enunciate vb say sharply, speak sharply, utter sharply outspeak (cf. NHG aussprechen), outdeal (cf. Sw. uttala)
envelop vb shroud, wrap, hide, swaddle bewrap, inshroud, inwomb, overfathom (<OE oferfaðman), bebind (<ME bebīnden)
envelope n - kite (US prison slang), wrapper, wordholder, mailholder
envious adj - evestful, andy jealous (<OE andig)

nitheful (<OE nīþfull)

environment n setting umworld or umbworld (cf. NHG umwelt), umsetting, umwerve (<OE 'ymbhwyrft'), lifeworld (cf. Du. levenswereld)
environmental adj - umwordly or umbworldly (cf. NHG umweltlich)
environmentalist n greenmonger
environmentally-friendly travel vb - greenfleet
envision vb foretell, foresee mindsee
envoy n sent one, spokes(wo)man sent (cf. Du gezand, NHG Gesandter), offsent, sent off (cf. Du afgezand, NHG Abgesandter)
envy vb want evest (<OE æfest), ondy (jealous), benithe, nithe
envy n - nithe (<OE nīþ ), onde, havelust, seething for
enzyme n - yeaster, yeastuff
eon n - thrisandyear (astronomy), (rhetorical) everyear, evertide
ephemeral adj fleeting, short-lived dwimmerly, dwimmerlike
ephemerality n
ephemeris n - tunglebook, starbook
epic n/adj adj: lofty, high-flown heleth(<OE hæleþ)
epicenter n - heart, middleord
epiglottis n - throatlid (cf. NHG Kehldeckel), overtongue (cf. Greek)
epilepsy n falling sickness -
epilog n afterword, afterthought endspeech, endwrit, aftertale, last words, end tale
epiphany n - sweetling (<OE sweotolung), atewing, heavensight, heaventhought
to have an (...): to be heavenstruck
Epiphany n - Sweetlingday (<OE sweotolungdæg), Atewmas (after Christmas, Candlemas, etc.)
episode n - follow (cf. NHG. Folge)
epistemology n - knowledgelore, knowlore
epistle n - errandwrit (<OE ærendġewrit) pl: errandwriotu (<OE ærendġewriotu)
epithet n byname, handle -
equal adj even, alike, same, evenworthy, sameworthy, samehood evenly (<OE efenlīc and <ME ē̆venlich)
equal n match -
equality n fairness; sameness, alikeness, evenness, likeness, samehood -
equanimity n steadiness evenmood
equate vb match, even up; offset, liken -
equation n match, likeness likening (calque), besaming, bematching
equator n - evener (cf. Fr. evener, Du. evenaar), girdle, midring, burning-line, heat-belt
equatorium n - stargirdler, starlengthreckoner
equidistant adj midway, evenfar -
Equestria n - Horseland
Equestrian adj/n horsemanship, horse-riding, on-horseback. horselandish, horselanding
equine n/adj steed, horse, stot adj: horsely
equinology n horselore
equinox n - evennight (<OE efenniht)
equip vb bedight, graith, (be)gear, fit (out), gear up, outfit, rig up, beweapon rust/ rist (<OE hyrstan)
equipment n gear, graith outrysting (cf. NHG Ausrüstung, Du. uitrusting)
equitable adj evenhanded -
equivalent adj - likeworthy (cf. NHG gliechwertig), samewise, evenworth
equivalent n fellow, like, match, withstander withersteck, witherbit, gainbit, gainsteck (cf. NHG Gegenstück), gainshtick (<English [gain- + steck], "One who is against my part", see Gainstander)
era n timespan, time, world, eld -
eradicate vb wipe out forspill, naughten, uplock (<OE úpálúcan), uproot, wipe out
erase vb rub out, root out, wipe out unmark
eraser n rubber -
erect n/vb upright, rear, set up, lift up aheave (<OE ahebban)
erection n 1. building 2. hardon, boner 1. uprighting
ergo conj/adv therefore, thus, forthy (att'd <OE for + thy, the instrumental form of the article) -
ergonomic adj body-friendly -
erinacine n hedgehog -
eritrocyte n - red bloodmote
ermine n stoat, short-tailed weasel northern weasel
erode vb begnaw gnaw away
erotic adj lovely, lewd, teasing -
err vb wander dwole (<OE dwolian, cf Du dwalen)
erratic adj wild-willed, wild-witted -
error n dwale, wrong, slip, slip-up, mistake dwole (<OE dwola), dwoleship (<OE dwolscip)

dwild (<OE dwild)

erupt vb flare up, blow up, break out, burst out -
eruption n outburst, outbreak -
escalator n - ridestairs; smart-stairs
escape n breakout, flight, getaway, slip, dodging, ducking, shunning leaping out, outleaping, other -ing from below
escape vb break out, flee, run off, shun, weasel out of withfare (<OE wiþfaran), othshake (<OE oþscacan), (<OE losian), othshoot (<OE oþsceotan), othrun (<OE oþrinnan), aturn (<OE ætiernan), atlimp (<OE ætlimpan), outleap (<OE oþléapan), atfare (<OE ætfaran)

by rowing: outrow (<OE oþrowan)

by swimming: outswim (<OE oþswimman)

escape pod n - fleepod
esophagus n weasand swallowtharm (cf. Du. slokdarm)
especially adv namely, moreso, above all hure (<OE huru), sundrily (cf. OE syndriglice), besunderly (cf. NHG besonders, Du. in het bijzonder)
Esperanto n - worldtung
espionage n - sleuthcraft
essay n - spellwrit, lorewriting, lorewise writing
essence n nub, heart, kernel, pith, being, whatness, broth, selfhood wist (<OE), selfship
essential adj key, foremost -
essentially adv/phr mostly, all but, all-in-all, as good as, as much as, mainly, at heart, in itself, on the whole, utterly, well-nigh, wholly, soundly, -
establish vb build, begin, settle, install, set up, staddle beground (cf. NHG begründen)
established adj longstanding, staddled, well-grounded begrounded (cf. NHG begründet)
establishment n body, steadiness, staddling steadihood
establishment (the) n - 'the establishment" : 'the topside'
estate n grounds, landholding ethel
esteem vb - aughten (<OE eahtian, cf. Du./NHG achten)
esteem n aught -
estimate n guessing; guesswork; reckoning shatting, shetting (cf. Du. schatten, NHG schätzen, Sw. skatta), upshatting, upshetting (Sw. uppskattning)
estimate vb guess; reckon shat, shet (cf. Du. schatten, NHG schätzen, Sw. skatta), upshat, upshet (cf. Sw. uppskatta)
Estonia n Estland (<ME ēstland)
estuary n mouth, firth, inlay -
esurient adj hungry, greedy -
et al.(ia) phr and others -
et cetera/etcetera phr and so on, and so forth, and the like, and others, and what-not -
eternal adj ay, everlasting -
eternal life n The Afterworld, The Hereafter the after-grave
eternity n everness -
ether n - swail (<OE swegl)
ethic n/adj straight, upright n: lief-walk
ethmoid bone n - sievebone
ethnic group n folkstock, bloodkin -
ethnic minority n - outlandish fellowship
ethnology n - folkken (cf. NHG Völkerkunde), folklore
etymology n rootlore, wordlore (has a broader meaning than rootlore.) wordlore, Ableitung (German for "derivation")
eu- n - good-, bet- ("good" <PG *bataz, cf. "better," "best), well- (cf. NHG wohl-)
eukaryote n - wholelifebit, wholekerneling (cf. Ic. "heilkjörnungar")
euphemism n - gilded words, mellowword, fairwording, welltalk (eu- "good" + pheme "talk")
euphonic adj wellclinking, wellclang (cf. NHG wohlklang)
euphoria n good-feeling well-at-burden
Europe n - Eveland, Quildland (quild "evening" <OE cwild(tid) + land, cf. H Ic. Kvöldland and NHG Abendland "Occident")
euthanasia n - death-choosing, willful death, smoothdeath
evacuate vb empty, empty out, drain -
evade vb dodge, sidestep -
evaluate vb - bedeem, bereckon, beworthen, think over, weigh up, look carefully at, sift through
evaluation n reckoning bedeeming (cf. Dn. bedømme), bereckoning, beworthening, worthreckoning, worthening
evangel n gospel -
evangelism n gospeldom, holy errand -
evangelist n gospeler, sendling -
evangelization n gospeling
evangelize vb gospel -
evaporate vb dry up, become wind, become loft outsteam (cf. Du. uitdampen), forsteam (cf. NHG verdampfen, Du. verdampen), forfly (cf. Du. vervliegen), yeathem (<OE ġeæðmian, to raise vapor)
eve n Dawn-woman, The Earth Mother or First Mother
event n happening, hap, befall; show -
eventually adv in time, in the end, at last outendly ( cf. Du. uiteindelijk), endly
evidence n word, witness, truth of bewise (cf. NHG. Beweis, Du. bewijs)
evident adj abere sweatle (<OE sweotol), couthly (<OE cuthlic)
evidently adv - aberely, eyeshinely (cf. NHG augenscheinlich, Du. ogenschijnlijk), selfstandingly
evince vb bespeak, give away becouthe
evocative adj mindful eftminding
evoke vb awake, call up, bring to mind, stir up eftmind, beswear (cf. NHG beschwören)
evolution n unfolding forblowing
evolutionary adj unfolding forblowing
evolve vb grow, unfold, bloom forblow
ex– pref fore-, out- ere-
exact adj right, full narrowkiry (cf. Du. nauwkeurig), ynauw (<OE ge- + hnēaw, cf. NHG genau)
exactly adv rightly, fully narrowkirily
exaggerate vb overplay, overdo overdrive (cf. NHG übertreiben, Du. overdrijven, Sw. överdriva, and others)
exaggeration n - overblowing, whid, overdriving, overplay, overdoing
exalt vb uplift, heighten aheave (<OE ahebban), hee (<OE héan)
examine vb go over, con underseek, underseech (<OE, NHG untersuchen, Du. onderzoeken, also in regards to beseech)
example n byword bisen (<OE bysen), byspel(<OE bispell and akin to NHG Beispiel)
model: forebilthe, bilthe (<NHG. vorbild), showing, showdeal, showoff
example (for) n thus for byspel, for bilthe, for bisen; for showing
exaptation n kludging -
exasperate vb imbitter tire (<OE tirgan)
excavate n delve, unearth, hollow out, dig up -
excavation n delving, unearthing, digging up -
exceed vb outreach, outrun, overrun, overstep; outdo, outshine, overtop -
excel vb outdo, shine, outshine, overtop in brightness: overlight (<OE oferlīhtan)
in stature: overlyve [pronounced overlaɪv] (<OE oferhlīfian)
excellent adj outstanding, gilt-edged, swell, topping, wonderful highcraft (<OE heáhcræft)
except prep but, other than -
exception n standout, outstander, outtake -
exceptional adj outstanding -
excerpt n - outpull (cf. NHG Auszug), offcut, snippet
excessive adj overmuch, steep, sharp, rank, overdone, too much overdeedy (cf. Du. overdadig)
excessively adv overly, too much, too -
exchange vb swap, wrixle bewrixle (<OE bewrixlan)
excise vb snithe, cut out -
excite vb upedge, thrill, key up upwake (cf. Du. opwekken), upwind (cf. Du. opwinden)
exciting adj thrilling, gripping, spellbinding -
exclamation mark n outrooptoken (cf. NHG ausrufezeichen), outtoken
exclude vb outshut yout (<OE geutian)
excommunicate vb - amanse (<ME amansen)
excoriate vb chide, flay threap
excrement n shit shittle (<OE scytel), queeth (<OE cwead)
excursion n outing -
excuse vb forgive, unguilt, let off the hook, let leave, unburden, free offsake (cf. Ic. afsaka), unshild (cf. NHG entschuldigen, see shild), unwite (<OE wītan), load (<OE lādian), beload (<OE belādian)
excuse n grounds, sake, shield, ward, out offsake, offsaking (cf. Ic. afsaka), guiltshifting, unguilting, unwiting, unshilding (cf. NHG Entschuldigung), outspeech (cf. NHG Ausrede), foretwisting, outtwisting (cf. NHG. Vorwand), outflight, outfleeing (cf. NHG. Ausflucht), load (<OE lād), beloading (<OE belādung)
ex-directory adj unlisted -
execute vb kill, quell, slay, put to death carry out: affen (<OE æfnan), lead out, lead through
executioner n halseman hangman, deathman, headsman, headman
exemplar n - template: forelay (cf. NHG vorlagen), foreblithe (cf. NHG vorbild, Du. voorbeeld)
exempt vb let out, let off outnim (cf. NHG ausnehmen, Du. uitnemen), outtake
exercise vb/n work out vb: ove (<PG ōbijaną cf. Du. oeveren, NHG üben), n: oving
exert vb put forth, bestir -
exhale vb breathe out, outbreathe athem (<OE æðmian)
exhaust vb overwork, wear out, forspend, tire, drain -
exhausted adj tired, weary, worn out, drained, overtired, work-wearied, fordone, windless, overcome -
exhaustive adj all-out -
exhaustive adj thorough, thoroughgoing groundly (cf. Du. grondig, NHG gründlich)
exhibit vb show -
exhibition n show, showing outstelling (<OE roots like Fris útstalling, NHG. Ausstellung)
exhume vb dig up, unearth -
exile vb send away, outlaw, blackball, blacklist, banish, cast out -
exile n outcast, outlaw, castaway wraxlithe (<OE wræcslíþ)
exist vb be, live, stand bestand (<OE gestandan; cf. NHG 'bestehen', Du 'bestaan'), forelie (cf. NHG vorliegen)
existence n thingness, beingness, beinghood therehood, wist (<OE wist), being, therebeing (cf. NHG Dasein), therestanding, worldliness
existent adj living, standing bestanding (cf. NHG Bestand), wistsome, forelying (cf. NHG vorliegend)
exit n way out, outway, outgang, outlet outgang (<OE ūtgang)
exit vb leave, move out of, go out, forsake, outlet abandon: forlet (cf. Du. verlaten, NHG verlassen)
exotic vb outlandish elthedish, farlandish
expand vb broaden, greaten, spread (out), unfold, widen, stretch theen, then (<OE þennan, þenian, cf. NHG dehnen, Du. dennen, ON þenja, L tendere), outbraid, braid out (cf. Du. uitbreiden)
expanse n spread, reach, broadening outstretching (cf. Du uitgestreking, NHG. ausgestreckung)
expect vb hope for, watch for, foresee, await, wait for ween, awatch, forwatch (cf. Fr ferwachtsje, Du verwatch)
expectation n awaitedness waiting-for (William Tyndale), weening
expectorate vb spit -
expedient n makeshift, stopgap -
expedite vb hurry, quicken -
expedition n outing outfooting
expeditious adj fast, quick, swift, speedy -
expel vb drive out, throw out, cast out fordrive (<OE fordrifann)
expenditure(s) n outgoing(s), dole out(s) -
expenses n overheads, dole outs -
expensive adj dear, dearbought, unthrifty -
experience vb undergo, go through, feel (or "get a feel for") afand, afare, uplive, livedness
experience n feel: ordeal, been-thru-ness afanding, afaring (cf. NHG Erfahrung)
experienced adj wise, learned, well-read afanded, hired, afared, frood (<OE frōd)
experiment vb fand, bid, seek forseek (cf. NHG versuch)
experiment n fanding, bidding, seeking fanding (cf. OE afundennes), forseeking
experimental adj fanding, bidding, seeking fandly, bidly, seekly, forseeking, forseekly
expert n dab fieldknower (calque)
expertise n know-how, skill, cunning -
expiate vb atone -
expiration date n sell-by -
explain vb spell out, unriddle, unfold, arread sweetle (<OE sweotolian), outlay (cf. Du uitleggen), aclear (cf. NHG erklären)
explanation n atelling, arreadiness sweetling (<OE sweotolung)
explicit n outfold -
explode vb burst, toburst, blow up
exploit vb overwork outnote (cf. NHG ausnutzen)

outbooty (calque of many germanic lang.)

exploitation n - bedraining, outnoting, outbootying (calque of many Germanic speech)
explore vb delve, look into rose/roase (<OE rasian), outfare
explorer n pathfinder, foregoer, forerunner, groundbreaker -
explosive n - fireshot, tinderstuff, blasttinder, springstuff, firespringer, burster
exponent(iate) n/vb - mightsfold
export vb outsend -
expose vb nail, show up
bare: lay out
exposé n - shendful outlaying
exposition n - outstelling (cf. NHG ausstellung)
expound vb flesh out -
express vb utter, say, word, outspeak one's feelings: thrutch out/outthrutch (cf. NHG ausdrücken), put out, lay out

atell (<OE ātellan and <ME atellen)

expression n - uttering; swettling; sainess, sayness (<OE gesegnes, cf Du. gezegde)
expressive adj well spoken, thoughtful, outspoken -
expropriate vb - unown (cf. NHG enteignen)
expulsion n outcast, driving out, throwing out, banning -
exsolve vb unmix -
exsolution n - unmixing (cf. NHG Entmischung)
extant adj lasting, still-living, still being, still going, keeping on -
extend vb lengthen, outstretch outbraid/braid out (cf. Du. uitbreiden), awiden (cf. NHG erweitern)
extend for vb span -
extension n furthering -
extensive adj broad, deep, far-reaching, fulsome, far-flung, sweeping, wide, widespread, lengthy -
extensively adv fulsomely, wholesale -
extent n length, breadth, reach outmete (cf. NHG Ausmaß)
exterior n/adj adj: outer; n: shell, outside -
exterminate vb wipe out, kill all -
external adj outward, outer -
extinct adj dead, gone, lost, died out outdead, outstarved, starved out (cf. NHG aussterben; Du. uitgestorven)
extinction n death, doom, knell, wiping out, dying out outdying/outstarving
extinguish vb douse, dout, put out, quench aquench (<OE ácwencan), adretch (cf. OE ádrysnan)
extort vb atread (<OE atredan)
extra adj spare, more, more other(s), more else, othermore -
extra marital affair n wedbreach, bedswerve -
extra time n overtime -
extract vb take out, draw out, pull out, pluck, unearth, harvest, worm out -
extraordinary adj amazing, outstanding, dazzling, astounding, awesome


extrapolate v draw out -
extraterrestrial adj - farlander
extravagance n wanthrift -
extreme adj utmost outermost (IE cognate)
extrinsic adj outborn, outly -
extrovert adj backslapper, glad-hander outgoer (cf. Eng. outgoing)
extroverted adj outgoing -
exuberant adj outgoing, sparkling -
exultation n glee highting (<OE hyhting)
exuviate vb shed, cast off, slough -
eye socket n eye-ring
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