Staff P of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
pabulum n fodder, food of thought -
pace vb/n speed; step, walk, stride, tread -
pacifier n soother -
pacifist n dove frithweaver, unfighter
package n wrapping -
paddle n oar -
pædophile/pedophile n - childluster
pædophilia/pedophilia n - childlust
pagan n heathen -
paganism n heathendom -
page n side, sheet, leaf; knave, boy, helper, thane

trammet (<OE tramet), leafside
servant: theen 

pacify vb allay smolten, befrith
pain n smart(ing), soreness, acheness, sorrow, care, teen(e) (obsolete), warch/wark (obsolete; k-form may be due to influence from Norse), woe
painful adj acheful, nasty, sore, harsh, harrowing, smarting -
paint vb/n mete (obsolete, but in the OED), dye

meal (<OE mǽlan)

n: farb (<OE færbu)
v. fay (<OE fǽgan) v. mete/meet (<OE (ámétan)

painting n meting (obsolete) mealwork (cf. Ic. málverk)
pair n twain, twin, set -
palace n hall kingshouse, kingshome

kinghove (<OE cynehof), king's dwelling, sale (related to salon)

palate n roof of the mouth, gums’ roof

gums/goom (<OE góma')

palatine bone n gums’ bone gumsbone, goombone, roofbone
pale adj bleach, dull, fallow, light, washed-out; ashen, doughy, mealy, wan -
pale n wall, weir -
paleo- pfx ere- ur-, or-
paleography n old writing ur-/orwritelore, erewritlore
paleolithic adj - ur-/orstonely, orstonish
paleontology n - ur/orwightlore, erewritlore
palindrome n - crabword, drowword
palisade n - stakehedge, stakewall, stakework
boardwall (<OE bredweall), stavewall, stickwall
palliate vb whitewash, soothe -
pallid adj ashen, doughy, mealy, wan, ghastly, grey, bleak, white, sickly, ill -
palmtree n - folmtree, handtree
palmary adj - heriworthy
palpitate vb throb -
pamphlet n flyer, folder, leafling leafel
panaceä n heal-all (not common, but in OED) allheal (calque)
pancreas n - sweet kernel
pancreas (when used as a food) n gut bread -
panda bear n - (greater) catbear,

eastern bear, eyeshadowbear

panel n shield, screen, board -
Pangaea n - Alland (all + land; calque)
pangolin n - shaledeer (calque)
panic n fright, elfshot wode, wodening
panorama n - allsight; roundsight (cf. NHG Rundblick)

umsight (see um-)

Panthalassa n - Allsea (all + sea; calque), Worldsea
pant(aloon)s n breeches, britches, shorts, leggings, hosen, strides, slacks, legwear -
pants, under- n undies, underwear, drawers netherlings, underkegs
papaya n - blasterapple (calque of Cuban Spanish "fruta bomba")
paper n

leaf, sheet, looseleaf


  • 'paper' in OE (from Latin) means papyrus*
para- suffix over- Yond-
parable n likeness, byword -
parachute n

fallward (calque of French parachute, para (defense against) + chute (a fall)

fall catcher

fallshirm (cf. NHG. Fallschirm, Du. valscherm)

paraclete n - forverghost (<OE forforgast)
paradise n fairgarden; heaven, the afterlife narxenwong (newtiding of OE neorxnawang; c.f. dark < OE deorc)
paradisiacal adj heavenly heavenlike, narxenwongly
parallel adj alongside; akin, matching getherwended, withstraight
parallelogram n - sides alongside; akinside
paralysed(ysis) adj/n lame(ness), lamed -
paramour n lover leman
paranoia n great fear, maddening fear; mistrust mad mistrust
paranoid n - mad misgiver, overmistruster
paranormal adj witchcraft, otherwordly; nithe, nicor nitheness; overmean
paraphrase n/vb - n. edwording

vb. edword

parasite n bloodsucker, free rider sidefeeder (calque of Gk. parasitos, para (beside) + sitos (food)
parasitism n bloodsucking, freeriding sidefeeding
parasol n sunshade -
parchment n bookfell -
parent n elder, forebear; father or mother, childrearer may (<OE mǣġ)
parenting n elderhood, childrearing, raising children/a child -
parenthesis n - breeches
parents n elders, folks mays (<OE mǣġas)
pariah n outcast, castoff, black sheep -
parietal bone n - skullwall
parish n - bedeshire
park n - parrock, eddish (not exact: yard, field)

deerton/deertown (<OE déortún)

parliament n - folkthing (cf. Dan. Folketinget)

ledeward, lawmoot, landmoot (there were shire moots, so this is the whole land)

parrot n - bleefowl (<OE bleohfugol)
parsimonious adj mean, stinting, tightfisted flint-skinning
parsley n - crispleaf
part n deal, share, bit -
part vb split, break, sunder -
partake vb have, take with bytake, dealnim; thie (<OE þicgan; c.f. lie < licgan, buy < bycgan)
partial n some bent (on), slanted (toward)
participate vb do with, leap in dealnim (<OE dælniman)
participation n -


in the Eucharist:  mansomeness

participant n - dealnimmer
participle n - dealnimmand (<OE dælnimand)
particle n mote, bit, crumb, mite, nip, shed; fleck, flyspeck, snip wordling grammar
particularly adv namely, above all, all the more, at length, ever so, in the main, more than ever hure (<OE huru), sunderly
partition n wall, wough -
partner vb/n mate

in crime: wisithe (<OE wīġesīþ)

parturition n childbirth, birthing -
party n gathering, fungathering, merrymaking, bash -
parvenu n upstart -
pascal adj - tholing
pass vb overtake, overstep

hand over, give

passage n path, way, pathway,
footway, footpath
extract: plucking
passage of time n flow of time timeflow
passenger n faregoer faregest (cf. NHG Fahrgast)


passion n love lithenship (< NHG Leidenschaft)
passive adj idle throwendly (<OE þrowiendlic)
passport n - wayleave, fareford, trekford
past n/adj bygone, forgone, former, last forthwist (<OE forðgewitan),
forganghood (<NHG vergangenheit),

forgonehood / forgoneness, foretide (cf. IC fortíð)

pasta n noodle, starch starchfood
pasture n grassland, lea, meadow, field leasow
patella n kneecap -
paternal adj fatherly -
Paternoster n Our Father Lord's Bead
pathetic adj rueful, ruthful, sad -
pathos n sadness -
patience n forbearing(ness) thild (<OE geþyld, cf. NHG Geduld)
moodthwearness (<OE módþwǽrnes)
patient adj forbearing thildy
(<OE þyld, cf. NHG geduldig)
patria n homeland, fatherland, motherland -
patriarch n elder, eldfather highfather (<OE hēahfæder)
patriarchy n - fatherwield
patrician n - highholder (<OE héahealdor)
patricide n - fatherslaughter, fathermurder
patrimony n fathersland -
patriotic n home-loving landtrothen, fatherlandish (calque)
patriotism n home-love, flag-waving (pejorative) landtrothenness, fatherlandloving, motherlandtrothness
patron n backer, bestower -
patronage n business, trade -
pattern n cut, doing, doings,folkway,
goings-on, layout,
shape, set-up, warp & woof,
way, ways, weave,
web, yardstick

Forelay (<NHG. Vorlage)

pause n break, let-up -
paucity n lack, fewness -
pavement n sidewalk, footpath, walkway -
pay vb yield, buy (it)

set back (rearranging word order)

betale (cf. NHG bezahlen,
Du. betalen)
payment n fee betaling (cf. Du. betaling,
NHG Bezahlung), scot
PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) n handheld, handtop handheld reckoner, handtop reckoner
peace n frith, bliss, rest, restfulness sib (<OE sibbe), grith (<OE griþ)
peaceful adj dovish, restful frithsome (cf. NHG. firedsam,
Du vreedzaam)

grithful (grith + ful)

peach n - perseapple (ancient Greek calque)
peal vb ring, toll -
peanut (OE from Latin) n earthnut, groundnut -
pearl n - seahurst, merhurst
(<OE meregrot 'sea particle',
<OE hyrst 'gem'),


peasant n churl, boor, yeoman, husbandman, landman -
peasant farmer n bour (<OE būr) pl:
bours (<OE būras),

cf. neighbour

peculation n thefting -
peculiar adj freak, unwonted, own markingly (cf. Nw. merkelig)
pedagogue n teacher -
pedal n treadle, footkey, foot board, foot trigger -
pedal adj foot(ed) -
pedantic n/adj

inkhorn(y), know-it-all,
nitpicking, teachy, boorish

n: dryasdust

pedestal n - footstone (<OE fótstán)
pedestrian n walker footman, footfarer, footgoer, footganger
peel n husk, rind, shell, skin, strip -
peel vb rend, skin, shell, tear,
pull off, slough off, strip
peep vb/n cast, eye; slang: gander -
pegasus n - winged horse
pejorative adj slighting -
pelican n -


dive-dapper or dive-dopper
(<OE dūfedoppa; the first element is
related to the verb "dive", not the noun "dove";

see OED entries
"dive-dap|dive-dop" and "dive-dapper")

pellucid adj unclouded -
pelt n fell, hide -
pen n marker, writing tool, writing needle, writing shaft writler, writingfeather, writingiron
(< OE wrítung-ísen),
writsax (<OE writ-seax),
reed, quill (uncertain origin)
penance n bote -
penchant n leaning, fondness -
pencil n stick leadstick, graystick, writingstick
penetrate vb breach, stab, thrill, bore -
peninsula n neck of land; arm, foreland,
headland, ness, spit
pentagon n - fiveside, fivenook, fivedge
Pentecost n Whitsunday -
penultimate adj last-but-one, next-to-last, forelast -
penis n

pizzle, weapon (<OE wæpn)
dick/cock (both slang; both vulgar),
pintle, tarse (both <OE), yard, shaft (slang),
manhood (slang)

brine hose (slang), 
bockler (Old Norse "bqllr")
penitence n rueness (<OE hreonisse), ruefulness, ruth gild
penurious adj stingy -
people n

folk; throng (group of people)

(<OE lēod, cf. NHG Leute, cf. Du. lieden)
pepperoni n - croudedswineflesh
perceive vb wit; see, grasp, behold, smell, smack, fang,
witness; make out

yeme, onget

bemark (cf. NHG./Du. bemerken)
upmark (cf. Du. opmerken)

percent n - hundredth(s)
percentage n - hundredmeal
perception n insight, grip, hold yeming, onget
undergetting, understanding,
truetake, soothtake
percolate vb leach -
perdition vb forelornness -
peregrine falcon n duck hawk

duckhawk, wanderfalk
(cf. Dn. vandrefalk, NHG. Wanderfalke)

perfect adj flawless; all-out, blank, blooming, clean, sheer, flat-out;
well done, all done, done throug

bild-board, swotel

fulmade (cf. Du. volmaakt)

perfect vb hone, fullcome -
perfidious adj forsworn; untrue, untrustworthy, trothless -
perforate vb awl, riddle, thrill, stick,
thirl/thurl (< OE thyrel,
now obsolete or dialectal), drill
perform vb do forth, do,
behave, work, play, show

uptread (theatrical; cf. Du. optreden)

theen (<OE ġeþēon)

perfume n -

duft, cride

athelstench (<OE æðelstenċ)
wortbreath (<OE wyrtbrǣþ)

perfunctory adj halfhearted, careless -
period (time) n while, timespan, time frame, spell, stint -
period (punctuation) n fullstop haltmark, stopmark, endmark
perish vb waste, waste away, be wrecked, dwindle; forfare, forworth, swelt (dialectal) dwale
perjure vb/ n forswear, lie under oath,
oathbreach, oathbreaking


perhaps adv maybe, mayhap, likely byhaps, weenings (<OE wenunga)
perimeter n brim, hem, rim, skirt, edge mireline
perineum n bonch -
permanent adj everlasting, eche (archaic),
timeless, lasting

highfast (<OE hēahfæst),

permafrost n - everfrost
permission n leave, warrant, letting,
green light, furlough
letship, thave (<OE þafian),
tholing tithe financial,
lethood, letship
permit vb/n green-light, leave,
let, go-ahead
thave (<OE þafian),
tithe (<OE tiðian)
pernicious adj baleful, baneful -
pernio n chilblain -
perpendicular adj athwart, straight out from, upright -
perpetually adj ever, everlastingly, for ay, endlessly, unendingly, world without end -
perpetuity, in adv forevermore -
perplex vb bewilder, muddle, befuddle, befog bewonder
persecute vb ail, hound -
persecution n witch hunt, hounding -
perseverance n sticktoitivenesss -
persistence adj steadfastness -
persistent adj steadfast, dogged, bound -
person n

someone, fellow, man,
soul, wight, bloke, being, body

lede/leed(e) (<OE lēod,
cf. NHG Leute, cf. Du. lieden)

mennish (cf. Du. mens;
NHG Mensch)

sway (<OE swég)

personal adj selfly, monnly, self, own, inner, innermost, inmost, belittling, near, of oneself mennishly, wightly (calque)
personality n egg, mood, selfhood, self, ghost -
personnel n staff, men, ware -
perspective n outlook, ken, wits, witness

edge of sight (point of view)

view, opinion: onsight
(cf. NHG ansicht),

outsight (Eng., cf. Du uitzicht,
<NHG aussicht)

wist (native English kin to
'view' and 'vista'), wholesight

perspicacious adj insightful, keen, shrewd mindswotel
perspicacity n insightfulness,
keenness, shrewdness
persuade vb bring, talk into, win over, sway beswipe (<OE beswapan)
pursue vb follow

a new path: tread, beat,

forfollow (cf. NHG verfolgen,
Du. vervolgen)

a new path:beshrithe
(cf. NHG beschreiten)

(see shrithe)

pertinacious adj headstrong, strong-willed -
peruse vb look through, read through -
pervade vb wade (archaic), go through,
spread through, fill with 
forwade (calque), yond-sprout?
(<OE geondsprútan), throughthrust
(<NHG durchdringen)
perverse adj overthwart forchared, bewarped, thirtover,
lewd, wayward, thrawn,
forcouth, untoward
pervert n - lewdster (Shakespeare),


pervert vb twist, warp, befoul bewarp, offset, froward
petition vb/n send writ, bene, beseech, beg, ask -
pet-name n nickname ekename
petrify vb - stun (<OE stunian)
petroleum n black gold

(fuel:) leaded, unleaded

rock-lime (calque), stonesap
petticoat n - smallpode (<"small" + OE "pād"),
cloak, coat,
and calque of ME pety coote,
from pety (<Fr. Petit) +
coat (<Fr cote)
petulant adj sour, moody, waspish -
pessimism n naysaying, gloomthinking -
pessimistic adj downbeat, hopeless -
phantasm n dream; shade, shadow, wraith -
phantom n ghost -
phalanx n - speerlining
pharaoh n king (of Egypt) Sunking
Pharisee n faker, holier-than-thou, cleanest one, show player Sunderholies (<OE 'sundor-halgan')
pharynx n - retch (cf. NHG Rachen)

swallow (cf. Dan. svælg; Sw. svalg)

pheasant n - wildhen (<OE wildhænn)

woorhen (<OE wōrhana)

phenomenal adj outstanding, astounding sarrow
phenomenon n happening, great show, good show -
-philia sfx -lust -
Philippines n Philipsland
philistine adj uncouth -
philological adj - speechwritlorish
philology n - speechwritlore
philosophy n wisdom, world outlook witlore, lorelief,
wittinglove (calque)
phimosis n - throttling
phlebotomy n bloodletting -
phloem tube n - wortrowel
-phobia sfx
phobia n fear, misfear, fright, dread -
phobic adj fearful -
phoenix n - firefowl
phone n/vb

n: blower, dog and bone,
farspeaker, handset

vb: ring, tinkle

speechlore (linguistics):
speechlimb, speechwhit (see whit)

phonetic adj - dinly
phonological adj - loudlorish, loudlore-
phonology n -

reardwork, reardlore,
loudlore (cf. NHG Lautlehre),


phosphorescent adj - lightshedding
phosphorus n - lightstuff
photograph n shot; lightshot, frame, sight, showing lightbilth (<IC. ljósmynd),
lightwrit, lightdrawing
photography n lightshooting lightbilthwrit, lightwritcraft,
photon n - lightmote, lightbit,
lightgang (calque)
phrasal adj (grammar) bound, having many words but being one wordstringly, quide (obs.)
phrase n - wordstring, quide (obs.)
phylum n stem, stock, kind -
physics n - worldken
physical adj bodily, bodylike, wordly, earthly lichly, lundsome
physician n leech -
piano(forte) n - beatharp/beat-harp (<IC slagharpa); keyharp
pickaxe n pike -
picture n likeness, drawing, sight, frame, shot, showing

bilth (<OE biliþ,
cf. Sw. bild, NHG
Bild; <Scots/Du.),


picturesque adj fair wlitty (<OE wlitig)

elfsheen (<OE ælfsciene)

pie n bake rindcake
piece n

bit, snead,
shtick (as in my piece/gimmick), clump

piece of art/music work

of silver: silverling pl:
silverlingen (<G, the Dschinghis Khan song,
Judas, specifically)

steck (<OE stycce, cf. NHG Stück)

piecemeal adv

little by little,
step by step, bit by bit

steckwise (cf. NHG stückweise)
pier n landing, wharf, breakwater -
pierce vb bore, hole; gore, spear -
pigeon n dove towndove, mean dove
pile n heap, hill, mound,
mow (hay), swath (corn)
pillage vb sack reave
pillar n mast, pole, stake -
pilot n lodeman, skyship boss,
foreflyer, loftman
pilot whale n - grindwhale (calque)
pimple n wheal -
piñata n - wonderbag (cf. NHG "wunderhüte")


piña colada n - mashed firapple (Spanish calque)
pinch vb

nip, squeeze,
steal, scrimp, nab

pine n fir, firtree,
evergreen (more general)
furrowwood (<OE furhwudu)
pineapple n - firapple (cf. Ic. ganaldin)
pinecone n - firtap (cf. NHG Kiefernzapfen)
pioneer n

waymaker, pathfinder

foretrecker (cf. Du. Voortrekker)
pioneering adj groundbreaking, waymaking

foretrecking (<Du. Voortrekker)

pious adj godly arefast (<OE arfaest)
pip n

seed; bee's knees, day's eye

pipe n

reed (in some contexts)

rear (<PG *rauza-;
cf. Sw. rör, NHG Rohr;
cf. "red" = NHG "rot" <PG *raudaz)

pirate n -

shaythman (<OE scegthmann)

pirate captain n -

highseathief (<OE héahsæþéof)

pisiform bone n - peabone, peashapebone
pistol n gun, gat (informal) staff (cf. ME staf), handgun (<ME hand gunne)
piston n - sucker (cf. Du. zuiger)



kindheartedness, ruth

eärming (<OE earmung)
pivotal adj key -
pixel n dot bilthdot (cf. NHG Bildpunkt)
pizza n - flatcake, clampcake
place vb lay, put, stow, put down -
place n spot, berth ord, stead, stow,
lough (<OE lóh)
place, special n - sunderstow (<OE sundorstow)
placenta n afterbirth

mothercake (cf. NHG Mutterkuchen,
SW. moderkaka)

plagiarism n thought-theft -
plague n outbreak folkbane, blightdom,
(<OE "mancwalm")
plan vb forethink, plot (origin unknown),
draft, hatch
howe (<OE hogian)
plan n layout, outline, draft, framework howe
plank n board, sill -
plankton n - drifter moss
planning n frame, layout, shape,
look, mean
planet n wanderstar, world,
(heavenly) body

tungle (<OE tungol),
wanderer (calque from the Greek)

plant n wort -
plant vb sow, besow, scatter -
planted adj - besowen
plantation n farmstead wortfield, seed farm, sowing field
plasma n - state of matter: stirloft (<IC rafgas)

blood: bloodslime

plaster n/vb

stickum; besmear

plastic n - newclay, hardclay, clay-stuff, shape-stuff
plateau n dish; headland flatberg
plate of metal n - clout (<OE clút),
fat/fet (<OE fæt)
platform n deck, staddle; soapbox, flatscape flatstand, flatstead; flatpad
platinum n white gold -
platitude n hackneyed saying flatness (calque)
platypus n watermole, duckbill, duckmole billwight (cf. NHG schnabeltier)

flatfoot (calque of Greek platypus)

(calque of Greek ornithorhynchus)

pleasant adj

blessed, darling, dreamy,
good, grateful, heavenly,
sweet, welcome

lief/ liefsome (Eng, NHG. lieb,
Du. lief, calque of all Ger. speech)

faining, listing,

please interj kindly, gladly, fain, if you will

bid (cf. NHG bitte),
liever (from lief)

please vb gladden, list queme
pleased adj blissful, thankful eady, quemed
pleasing adj grateful, welcome quemely (<OE cwémlic)
pleasure n lust, gladness

quemeness (satisfaction),
itheness (<OE īeðnes)

plebiscite n - folkfrain, folkcast, folksay

folkspoll, folksstevening
(Du. volksstemming),
folksanswer (NHG. Volksentscheid)

plectrum n pick harpnail (<OE hearpenægel)
pledge n plight -
pledge vb swear, sicker -
plentiful adj rife, teeming, manyful -
plenty adv enough/enow, many weal
plethora n overflow overmuchness
-plex suf -fold -
plumage n feathers, featherware, hackles -
plumber n - leatfitter, bogfitter,
johnman (slang), leadworker
plumbing n - leadwork
plumbline n - wall-thread (<OE weallþrǽd)
plunder vb - stroud (<OE strūdian)
plunge vb dip, dunk, dive -
plural adj morefold

manifold(ly) (<OE manigfealdlic), manysome 

plutocracy n - gelddom, goldwield
pluvial adj rain indicator: watergall
pneumatic adj of a woman: shapely thringlofty
pneumonoultramicrosco-picsilicovolcanoconosis n - inbreathedgroundashandsanddustsickness


flintstuffdustsickness; (poetic) dusty-lung dree

poem n lay, yed (in OED, <OE giedd) leeth (<OE leoð),
leethsong (<OE leoðsang),
adight (NHG gedicht)
poet n scop, writer, dighter

shope (<OE scop)
leethwright (<OE leoþwyrhta)

poetry n dighting leethcraft (<OE leoðcræft),
wordcraft, shopcraft
point n tip, tine, nib

score; stake, log

Ord (Eng./NHG. but seldom)
point v token at

point out sth: betoken,
forewarn, make smb aware of

pointless adj - sakeless
poison n bane, gall, atter (obsolete or dialectal)
pole (land/ physics) n axle
polar (land/physics) adj - axled
polar bear n -

ice bear (NHG Eisbär,
Dan. isbjørn, Du. ijsbeer,
Ic. ísbjörn, Norw. isbjørn,
Swed. isbjörn,
W.Fris. iisbear),
white bear (Far. hvítabjørn,
Ic. hvítabjörn)

polar zone n land of the midnight Sun everfrost belt
pole n -

shot <OE sceāt
"corner, angle, nook,"
cognate of skaut)
worldshot (<IC heimskaut)

polecat n - thummart
polemic n/adj rant -
police n law, lawmen, watchmen, coppers, warders lawthane, warden
policy n - thew
polite adj becoming, befitting -
political adj

party: mootband

shirecrafty, shirecunning, rikescrafty, rikescunn
politically correct language n egg-shell speak
politician n lawmaker shireling
politics n - shirecraft, shirecunning, mootsmanship, kingspeak, reevedom, reevecunning, rikescraft, rikescunning
pollute vb foul, befoul, make dirty smear, besnit, besmut
poltergeist n - dinghost,
polycephaly n - manyheadedness
polygamist n - maniwed
polyglot n - tonguesmith, manytongue
polygon n - manihern
polyhedron n - manineb
polytheïsm n - sundertroth
pomegranate n - seedapple (calque), seedovet (calque)
pompous adj showy, overbearing;
high-flown, boastful
ponder vb wonder, eye, think,
weigh, wrestle with
hiler, smigh
pontoon n card game: twenty one sundstall
pony n - horseling
pool (money) n pot -
poor adj in need, on the breadline,
wretched, ill-stared, needy, wantsome

arm (<ENG dialectal ety. 2,
ME, <OE earm) armthy (see armth)

pop (music) n folk folksglee
pope n Holy Father

Romish headrunner
(runner = bishop,
cf. NHG Läufer, Sw. löpare)

Highfather (<OE héahfæder)

popular adj folksy, folkly, folkish -
popularity n - allthede-love (<IC alþýðu-lof)
populate vb - befolk (cf. NHG bevölkern, Du. bevolken)
population n folks

population: befolking

(cf. NHG bevölkerung, Du. bevolking) inhabitants: inwoners
(cf. NHG einwohnern, Du. inwoners)

indwellers, folk, erdeners,

dwellerscore, ledescore,

population density n crowding; thickness of settling huddlemete
populism n folks folksdom, folkship, folksric, folkswield, folksreevedom, folkshire
populist adj folksy
populous adj crowded, teeming folkful, folkrich (calque of German)
populus assembly n -

(calque of many germanic languages) folksgathering, folksmoot

porcelain n shiny earthenware midricware (chinaware)
porcine adj piggish, swinish, boarish, hoggish
porcine n pig, boar, hog, swine, sow, yelt -
porcupine n - quillpig
pore n hole, hidehole, skinhole thirl, sweathole
pork n pig, swine, swineflesh farrow (<OE fearh)
pornography n - whoreshowing
porous adj holey, seepsome siftful, thirl (<OE thyrel)
porpoise n mereswine -
porridge n mush, oatmeal -
port n harbour, haven ford, hythe
portable adj handheld ferryworth
portmanteau n - word: mingleword
(cf. Du. mengwoord)
portal n doorway, door, gate, gateway

rother (<OE rodor)

portend vb

bode, by-sen, forerun,
ill-bode, foreshadow, forewarn

portent n - foretoken, boding
portentous adj

doomy, foreboding,
ill-boding, threatening;
awesome, stunning, wonderful

portion n deal, lot, share, dole -
portrait n likeness (of) bilth, mealing
position n berth steadholding
positive (aspect) n upside -
positive adj - mathematics: overnaught
possess vb

own, owe; devilsicken,
bewitch, take, take over

possessed adj

devilsick, fiendsick, owned, ought,
owed,own, giddy,
bewitched, deviltaken,
deviled (Sir John Cheke)

possession n ownership, belonging, ought ownedness (<OE anwædnesse), ight
possibility n likelihood, likeliness

mightliness, maybehood,

acendliness (<OE ácendlicnes), acumendliness (<OE ácumendlicnes)

possible adj likely, maily (<FR mooglik) maybesome,
doughtbefall, dowedbefall, hapsome, mightsome, within reach,
acumendly (<OE ácumendlic)
possibly adv maybe, likely, likelily maily
post- pref after- -
posterior n rump, back(side) -
posteriority n afterness -
posterity n offspring


post-existence n

afterlife, afterbeing,
the beyond, the great beyond,
the next world, other world,
the great unknown

posthuman n - afterwere, gearwere,
beyond mankind
posthumanism n - afterweredom, gearweredom
postpone vb forestall, put off, call off forshove (for- "away" + shove,
cf. NHG verschieben), forslow
post script (p.s.) n afterthought afterword, afterwrit (a.w.)
potassium n - potash (pot-ash)
potato n spud, tater, tatty

earthapple (cf. NHG Erdapfel,
Pl. ziemniak, N.Pers. سیب‌زمینی)
nightshade runner ('solanum tuberosa'),
shaderoot, breadroot

potential adj likely, maybe maily
potential n strength, fitness, wherewithal
potion n - tiverdrink (cf. Du. toverdrank), lib
pouch n - pung (<OEpung, cf. Sw., Dn. pung)
poultry n

fowl, barnyard birds,
bird meat

pour vb teem, skink, shink,
sie, yote

yeat; birle drink

poverty n need, want; dearth, drought, wantsomeness armth, armhood
powder n/vb

dust; beat,
crush, grind

power n

grip, sway, strength,
brawn, might, mains

thrith (<OE thryth)

wield/wold/wald (<OE weald)

special: sundercraft (<OE sundorcræft)
supreme: douthmight (<OE duguþmiht)

power vb drive, feed -
power line n mains line spark rope
powerful adj heavy, mighty, strong

thrythswythe (<OE þrȳþswȳð)

power supply n mains brick -
practical adj working; earthy, down-to-earth -
practically adv

about, all-but, fair, fairly,
more or less, nearly, well-nigh

practice vb/n -

n: oving
(cf. NHG Übung,
Du oefening) vb: ove (<PG ōbijaną
cf. NHG üben,
Du oefenen/ LG. öven)

pragmatic adj hardheaded, down-to-earth -
praise n -

heriness (<OE herenes),
hering (<OE herung), lof (<OE

praise vb - hery (<ME heryan)
pram n buggy push-wainling (Barnes)
prayer n bead ben, boon
beadred (<OE bedræden),
prayerful adj - beadful
pre- pref fore- -
preach vb - athelbid
preacher n - athelbode (<OE éðelboda)
preamble n foreword, inleading, forespell -
precaution n forecare -
precede vb herald, forerun -
precinct n space: pen
pedestrian zone: walkway
precipitation n rainfall, snowfall,
downsheet, breefall
precious adj dear, dearworth, dearworthly -


n dearworthiness -
precise adj - -
precisely adv well -
preclude vb forestall, foreclose -
precocious adj ahead rathe-ripe, rathish
precognition n foreknowledge, foreboding -
precursor n forerunner, forebear -
predator n hunter (in some contexts)

reavedeer (cf NHG. Raubtier,
Du. roofdier), flesheater

predecessor n forerunner; forebear, forefather foreling (by analogy to afterling)
predestination n wyrd/weird, doom, foredooming

weird, coring,
foreteeing (<OE foreteohhung)

predetermine vb foredoom, forechoose -
predicament n swamp, catch 22, sticky wicket hardfettle
predict vb

foretell, foresay, foresee,
forecast, soothsay, foreshow

prediction n

foretelling, foresight, foretelling,
forecast, soothsaying,

predominant adj overweighing -
preëminent adj foremost elderdomly (<OE ealdordomlice)
preëxistence n aforeness, beforeness,
prefabricated adj ready-made, ready-built,
preface n foreword

(<OE þurhlōcung)

prefect n - fyrdenhighshireman
prefer vb forechoose, (would) rather, wouldsooner, fain beliken
preferable adj -

liever, as lief
(Eng. NHG. lieber, Du. liever)

preference n Forechoice beliking, forechoosing
prefigure vb foreshadow, foreshow -
prefix n - forefastening
pregnant adj with child, heavy (with child) bearing
prehistoric adj - yesteryorely
prehistory n - yesteryore

study: forewritlore

prejudice(al) n/adj foredeem(ing) -
prejudge vb foredeem -
prelude n foreword, warm-up forspell
premature adj untimely, unripe, early, betimes (literary) foreripe
prematurely adv beforehand, oversoon -
premeditated adj forethought -
premier adj foremost, first -
premise n

given, forestep, if; toft (building site')

premonition n forefeeling, foreboding -
preoccupy vb


preparation n gearing up,

reening, readying, foregearing,
gearwing (<OE gearwung)

prepare vb

taw, fit, fix, groom, lay, ready;
draft, draw up, frame;
lay out, foreready, forework

reen (<OE renian),
prepared adj ready, tawed, neat, foreworked, forereadied -
preposition n -

foreput, foresetness
(< Ælfric's OE calque 'foresetnes')

prepuce n foreskin -
prequel n - forefollow, forebook
prerequisite n - foreneed
prescience n

oresightedness, forethought

prescient adj

farseeing, farsighted,
forehanded, foreseeing,
forethoughtful, forward

prescribe vb lay down forewrite
presence n sight; look, outside

bybe (cf. Du. bijzijn),
onbe-hood, theresomeness

present adj

in; ongoing, nowaday,
today's, now's, nowadays',
running, nowen

andward (<OE andweard),
gainward (cf. NHG gegenwart),


present n

here and now, today; gift, handsel

nowtide, nowtime, nonce,
time being, now, grammar: andward
(<OE andweard)

present vb

show; give, bestow, furnish,
put forth, set forth, bring forth

(calque of all Ger. speeches),
forthset, forthput, overreach
(cf. Ger. überreichnen)

submit: forelay (cf. NHG vorlegen)

Presentation of the Lord n Candlemas -
presentiment n forefeeling -
preserve vb forlast, hain, keep,
uphold, aspare
preside vb steward, overlook foresit over
president n'" -

foresitter (calque),
kithhead, stoolman, landleader

press vb thring, thrutch -
press down vb - bethryck (<OE beþryccan)
pressure n - thringmight, thryck
presume vb foreguess, daresay athrist (<OE áthristian)
presumably adv likely, seemingly
presumptuous adj uppity, overweening, daring -
presuppose vb - forettle, forise (<OErǣswian)
pretend vb do as if, play as if, sham, put on, fake bebraid (< OE bebregdan), braid (< OE gebregdan), hue (< OE hiwian), let (<OE lætan), fordo, formake
pretender n would-be, fake, faker -
pretense n

put-on, show; high horse

pretentious adj showy, hoity-toity,
over the top, kitsch
prevail vb hold up, keep up, last throughswithe (<OE þurhswiðan)
prevent vb

hinder, forcome, forbid,
forestop, forestall, forehinder

let (<OE lettan), forstand
preview vb/n forelook, forepeek,
foreshow, foreshowing
previous adj former, last, latter,
foregoing, earlier, yester
previously adv

afore, already, before,
beforehand, earlier, formerly

prey n (the) hunted (in some contexts) feng (<OE)
price n outlay, worth
pride n - unmoodness (<OE unmōdnes)
priest n hallower (Old Testament), elder (New Testament, < Gk πρεσβύτερος), ghost-man (heathen), cleric (paynim)
prima donna n leading lady, first lady; angry woman, showy woman -
primacy n - foremostness, elderdom (<OE), apeness
primary adj foremost, first, erst, main -
primer n - futhorc writ, firstbook
primeval adj hoary, olden -
prince n frim, atheling, highness

high earl, kingling,
furst (cf. NHG Fürst, Du. vorst)

princess n highness

queenling, high earlin, furstin
(cf. NHG Fürstin, Du. vorstin)

principality n - frimdom (<OE fruma),
high earldom
principle n - howing, eldertruth
principle adj main, foremost, first, head -
print vb -

thrick (< OE þryccan), forlau, outlay

printing press n - thrycker, thringing thryck calque
prior adj before(hand), earlier -
priority n right-of-way forerank, foreweight,
foreness, forehood, beforeness
prism n block andleamer
prison n clink, lockup, pound fangness (<OE root fang (now dial. (capture) + -ness <OE) (like Dutch gevangenis or German Gefängnis dung (<OE dung)
prisoner n inmate haftling (<OE hæftling, cf. NHG Häftling)
pristine n earliest, firstness, spotless, yoreness, orhood -
private adj hidden, hushed, shut, asunder, set away dern, onelepy (<OE anlipig), sunder, wightly (calque of personal)
privilege n right, freedom sunderfreedom (<OE), sundergift (cf. OE sundorgiefu)
privileged adj gifted -
privy n outhouse dern
pro n craftsman -
probable adj likely -
probably adv likely, in all likelihood, likely enough, maybe, most likely, belike trueshinely (cf. Du. waarschijnlijk, NHG wahrscheinlich)
probe vb prod -
probity n uprightness -
problem n worry, kinch, bugbear, reck, hang-up, hitch, snag, rub, pitfall, fall, downside -
procedure n - forsetting (cf. Da. fortsætte, Sw. fortsätta), forfareld
proceed vb go forward, go forth, forthpass, go on, go ahead yede, forefare, forthfare,, forthgo
proceeding n - foregoing, foregang (cf. NHG Vorgang)
process vb -

forework, forthfaring, forfare (cf. NHG verfahren), taw

process n -

foregang (cf. NHG Vorgang), workway

processor n computer: mainframe telcruncher, reckoner
proclivity n forelike, forelove towardbend
procrastinate vb forresten
procreäte vb beget, breed -
procurator n - highshireman (<OE hēahscīremann)
procure vb - beshape (cf. NHG beschaffen)
product n ware -
productive n waresome, thrifty, yoelding -
prodigy n - wonderchild
prodigal adj spareless unbridled, feespilling
produce vb beget, breed, bring about, bring forth, draw on, work, yield, forthbring
produce n handiwork, output, thing, work, yield, outcome  -
production n yield, output, handiwork forthbringing
productive adj - forthbear (<OE forþbære)
proem n foreword -
professional adj skilled -
professional n worker, craftsman -
professor n lorespeaker, loregiver -
profit n gain, boot, yield, winnings, earnings -
profitable adj worthwhile -
proficiency n skill -
profound adj underlying, deep -
profoundly adv underlyingly, deeply, groundly -
profusely adv phr flow thickly, running overly, teemingly -
profusion n beteeming -
progenitor n

begetter, elder, father, forebear, forefather, fore-elder, forerunner

program n - foredraught, broadcast, sending (see source code)
language: draft writ
progress n inroads, headway forthship (<OE forþscype), forthstride
progressive adj forward, late, broad-minded, cutting-edge forblowing
prohibit vb forbid, forfend -
project n work howe, goalwork
projector n beamer -
prokaryote n - forenut, forekern (calque)
proletariat n churls, boors, thralls, hirelings, knaves; thralldom churldom, boordom, knavedom
prolific adj fat, lush, rich birthy, broodful, birthful
prologue n foretale -
promise n behight, oath, troth, foreword -
promise vb behight, swear; forebode forspeak (NHG. versprechen), forhight (cf. NHG verheissen)
promontary n headland, foreland, ness, hoe -
promote vb uprear, (up)further, boost -
prone adj given, open; helpless alout (<OE áloten), forthlout (<OE forþlútan), onfally (<NHG anfällig, see onfall)
pronghorn antelope n - tinedeer, outrunning tinehorner
pronoun n - byname (<OE binama), forename (<OE forenama)
pronounce vb say speak out, outspeak (cf. NHG aussprechen, Du. uitspreken)
pronunciation n - wordway, loudcarve (<IC. hljóðkerfi), outspeaking, outspeech (cf. NHG aussprache, Du. uitspraak), how to say [it]
proper/correct: rightsteven (<OE rihtstefn)
proof n witness shedding, reckonedness (<OE gerecednes), bewise (cf. NHG beweisen, Sw. bevisa, others)
propel vb thrust, drive, drive forth -
proper adj fitting, meet, seemly, right, true, echt bedavenly (<OE gedafenlic)
proper noun n self-name ownname (NHG Eigenname, Du. eigennaam)
property n ownings, holdings;
hallmark, belongings
ownhood, owndom (<NHG. eigentum)
private: sunderfee (<OE sundorfeoh), landgood (Du. landgoed), eaght (<OE æht)
prophesy vb foretell, foresee, soothsay, say sooth spae
prophecy n foresight, boding, foretelling, soothsaying spaedom, spaeing
prophet n seer, soothsayer, foresayer (Sir John Cheke) spaesayer
proposal n - forthput, forthputting
propose vb put forth, say forthput, forthsay
propriëtor n householder, owner, >landlord/lady -
propulsion n thrust -
proscribe vb forbid -
prosecute v - forfollow (cf. Du. vervolgen, NHG. verfolgen)
prosecution n - forfollowing (cf. Du. vervolging, NHG verfolgung)
proselyte n freshman (Sir John Cheke) -
prosopagnosia n - neb blindness
prosper vb thee -
prosperity n theedom forblowing (<OE blowan)
prosperous n lush theely, wealth-owning
prostitute vb whore -
prostitute n hooker, whore, streetwalker, hustler -
prostrate adj aground -
prostrate oneself (to) vb lay aground before hien (<OE hīenan, lit. "to lie prostrate")
protagonist n - headfellow (cf. Dan. hovedperson)
protarchæopteryx n - foreorfowl, first orbird
protect vb ward, shield, forstand, beshield -
protection n shield, ward lewing (<OE hleowung), mundwist (<OE mundwist)
protective adj - mundly (<OE mundian), wardly
protector n warden holdand (<OE healdend)
protégé n ward -
protein n - eggwhite (cf. NHG Eiweiß, Du. eiwit)
protest n/vb witness; uproar, outcry wrangle, gainsay -


Protestant (< Lat. pro testare, “for a witness”) adj witnessing, faithful, gospelling; true faith; speaking out against lies for the troth
Protestant n witness for Christ, faithful, gospeller, true believer; speaker against lies
proto- pref ere, ere-, or-, ur- -
Proto-Germanic n - eretheedish, ortheedish
proton n - erebit, firstbit; watermaker
protoplasm n - ereslime, orslime


vb stick out, jut -
protuberance n knob, outgrowth -
proud adj haughty, showy, overbearing, self-worshipping, lofty, stout rank (<OE ranc), stolt (<OE stolt, cf. NHG stolz)
prove vb show, truthen, witness, settle soothe (OE 'soþian,' ME 'sothen'), bewise (<NHG beweisen, Sw. bevisa, others)
proverb n byword, saying, saw, folksay(ing) -
provide vb afford, feed, give, hand over beheft
province n - landshare; outland, folkshire (<OE folcscearu)
provocation n - greming (<OE gremung)
prow n foreship -
prudence n forewit, sparefulness, wariness, wisdom flackheadedness (flack 'level' <Fr, Du.)
prune n plum -
pruning n shredding, shreading (in OED, obsolete; <OE scrēadung) -
Prunus Spinosa n blackthorn, sloe sloethorn (<OE slāhþorn)
Prussia n Pruceland, Leatherland
pry vb 1. key-hole 2. uproot -
prying n/adj key-holeing -
pseudo- n fake, -like lease-
psychedelic adj - soulkithing, mindopening, mindrooming, soulopening (cf. Sw. "själsöppnande")
psychiatrist n shrink mindhealer, soulkithler, mindlore(wo)man
psychiatry n - soulkith (cf. Du. seelkunde), mindkith
psychic n - soulsman, mindsman
psychic adj - soulish, mindish
psychologist n shrink mindlorer, mindloreman
psychology n - mindlore
psychopath adj - mindsick, mind-ill
psychotropic/psychoactive adj - mindwending
pubic bone n - shamebone
pub(lic house) n inn, alehouse, boozer -
public n - openlihood (cf. NHG Öffentlichkeit)
public adj open, mean openly, folkly (calque from Latin)
public servant adj - theen, onbidsman
public toilet n - outhouse
publication n uttering foropening (cf. NHG veröffernlichung), abaning
publish vb utter (lasted in New English until around 1740, when “publish” overtook it), forthset, bring out, forthsend lay down: forlay (cf. NHG verlegen), outlay, foropen (cf. NHG veröffenlichen), aban (<OE abannan)
publisher n - utterer; forlayer, forlay house (cf. NHG verlag), abaner
pulsate vb beat, throb -
pulse n 1. beat, throb 2. bean -
pumice n - foamstone
pumpkin n marrow tillberry, harvestball
punch vb clout handstrike, fiststrike, dunch
punctuation n - tokenmark, tokensetting (cf. NHG Zeichensetzung, Dan. tegnsætning)
punish vb wreak smite, strafe (<NHG), witten (<OE wítnian), give back
punishment n wreak smiting, strafing (<NHG), wittening (<OE wítnung), giveback (< payback)
pup n whelp -
pupil n of the eye: strale -
puppet n cat's paw handdoll (cf. NHG Handpuppe)
purchase vb buy, take -
pure adj clean, sheer, white swotel (<OE sweotol)
purebred adj thoroughbred -
Purgatory n - Sweepfire (cf. NHG Fegefeuer), Otherworld
purge vb cleanse furb
purify vb cleanse beswotel
purple n - bawse (<OE basu), fishdye (<OE fiscdēah), tiver (<OE teafor), woaden (<OE wæden), redblue, bluered (<OE blēorēod), clamhue, clam
purple dye n - welktallow (<OE weoloctælg)
purple martin n - bawseswallow, blueswallow
purpose n sake, goal -
pursue vb follow, shadow, tail -
pursuit n following, shadowing, tailing woath (<OE wāþ)
purveyor n monger -
pus n atter -
push vb shove, thrust, thrutch outarm
pusillanimous n weak-minded
pustule n pock, w(h)eal, whelk
putrefaction n rot(ting) addleness
puzzle n/vb brainteaser, riddle -
pygmy n dwarf; Tom Thumb -
pyramid n - fourflat (cf. Du. viervlak)
pyromania n - firemadness
pyromaniac n - firesetter
pyrophobia n - fireawe, firefear, baleyse (<OE bælegsa)