Staff R of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
rabbit n hare rob (<Flem. or M.Du. robbe "rabbit")
raccoon n washbear -
race n kind, stock strain (<OE strynd) sley (<NHG Geschlächt)
radar n - forereader, far reader, wavereader, wavemeter (with the element "-meter" based on the verb OE - metan)
radiant adj shiny, bright, beaming, glowing, gleaming throughbright (<OE þurhbeorht)
radiate vb shine, gleam, shed, send out, beam -
radio n/adj wireless (gadget) funkbox (<OE funcia "spark" + box, cf. NHG Funkgerät)


radioactive n lightrotting
radiotelegraphy n broadcasting -
radio wave n ringwave funkwave (cf. NHG Funkwelle)
radius n spoke halfspan
rage n wrath greme (<OE gremian), wode
railroad n - ironroad, ironpath, sporroad (<OE spor)
raison d'état. n drygrape (German:dörrtrauben "Raisin") theedish intryst (calque)
raison d'être n livelihood sake of being/sake of living (calque), lifesake, "for life's sake" (phrase)
RAM (Random Access Memory) n - RAM (Read-Always Mind)
rancid adj rotting, reeking, smelly, stale, foul, dank, rank, taff -
ranch n bou (cf. Scots from ON. bú)
random adj/n hit-or-miss, slay, may-fall, pot shot, lucky, unforeseen, luck-chosen

fallenly, tofally (cf. NHG zufällig)

willcury (calque of Du. willekeurig, with the element "-cury" based on OE -cyrge in wælcyrge "Valkyrie") see The word "random".

random page n lucky leaf, lucky side, unforeseen leaf, unforeseen side, luck-chosen leaf, luck-chosen side willcury trammet, may-fall leaf
range n reach, stretch, breadth -
ranger n keeper, warden, overseer; wanderer upseer (cf. NHG aufseher)
rank n

row, standing, 

hoad (<OE hád)
rankle vb gall, irk -
rape vb/n - needheemed (<OE níedhæmed)

forwaldying (cf. NHG Vergewaltigung)

rapid adj fast, quick, speedy, swift snell
rappel vb abseil downrope (cf. NHG abseil)
rare adj fewsome, geason, selcouth, seldom, seldseen, selly, unlikely seldsome, seldly
rarely adv seldom -
rarified adj fewsome, thin -
rarify vb make seldom beseldom, selden, befew, bedearth, thin
rarity n seldiness, seldomhood, dearth, fewness -
raspberry n hindberry hindberry (cf. Dn. hindbær)
rate n speed runledge, setledge
ratio n evenness, worth -
rational adj well-grounded, wise shedwise (<OE scéadwís), angetful
rationalism n - anget, shedwiseness, mindplay
ravage vb - forspill
ravine n chine, gap, ditch, gulch, ghyll crundle (<OE), cloughdale (cf. Du. kloofdal)
ray (of light) n beam streal/streel (<OE strǽl, cf. NHG Strahl; the vowel would be expected to be variable in ME as in speech, seed, deed)
ray (animal) n - reagh (<OE reohhe cf. NHG Rochen, Du. Rog)
razor n shaver -
re- pref

with-, gain-, new-

and- (obs.) , ed- (obs.) , eft- (obs.)
realise/ realize vb wit;

find out, get on, wise up, dawn upon

bemark (Du./NHG. bemerken)

beaughten (NHG. beachten)

real adj true, heartfelt; weighty, out-and-out, echt sooth
real estate n - fastgood (cf. Du. vastgoed)
reality n being, sooth, truth wareness/warehood (calque), soothness, workliness/worklihood (cf. Du werkelijkheid/ NHG. Wirklichkeit) 
really adv truly soothly, sooth, echtly
realm (royal) n kingdom kingric
realm n world, land,  rike
reason n/vb

grounds, wherefore, why, sake

vb: reckon, wit; make out, work out

faculty:  wits, wit, mind, brains, understanding

frum (<OE fruma)

inthing (<OE intinga/inþing)
ontimber (<OE ontimber)
orsake (calque)
rethe (<OE rǣd)
anget (<OE andgiet)
rack (<OE racu)
rightwiseness (<OE rihtwísnes)
shedwiseness (<OE scéadwísnes)
shed (<OE gescéad)
wit (<OE gewitt)
nift (cf. NHG Vernunft, Dn. fornuft)

reasonable adj well-grounded shedwise (<OE scéadwís)

shedly (<OE gescéadlic)

rebel n withstander withercor (<OE wiðercorra), upstander, upstandling (cf. Du. opstandeling)
rebel vb rise up withsee (<OE wiþsēon), withfight (<OE wiþfeohtan)

upstand (cf. Du. opstand; pron. up-STAND)

rebellion n outbreak, uprising upstand (cf. Du. opstand; pron. UP-stand)
rebellious adj - upstandy (cf. Du. opstandig)
rebuke vb threap, chide, tick off; berate, call down strife, threw/threaw (<OE þrēawan), forquethe (<OE forcweþan)
recall vb withcall, withdraw, bethink edcall, eftcall, withmind, call to mind, think back to
recalcitrant adj unhold, unhearsome, hardheaded, stubborn, wayward -
recapitulation n going over again withspelling (<OE eftspellung), withhaul (cf. NHG wiederholen)
receive vb get, win, earn, take beget, thedge (<OE thicgan), fang (<OE fōn)
receipt n sales slip, sales stub
recently adv lately, newly tidely, shortago
reception n welcoming
recite vb yarn, reel off reich
recline vb lie back, lie down, stretch heel backleaned (German:zurückgelehnt )
recognize vb acknow, acknowledge, beknowledge yeme, onget (<OE ongietan) / anget (<ME), wot/wost (<ME woot, <OE wāt); ppl. wit/wite, pp. wist,
recommend vb - ettle, befeal (<NHG. empfehlen), rede
recompense n - gainyield, foryield (obsolete)
reconsideration n afterthought, edsmighing
reconcile vb key braid up, geseman (<OE)
reconciliation n - andweaving
record v log, write down, list, cast
sound or video: tape
fortoken (cf. NHG verzeichnen, Swed. förteckna)
record n log, cast lorekeep
recount vb overname -
recover vb heal, win back, take back intrans: edworp (<OE edwyrpan)

trans: agive (<OE agifan)

edtake ( using ed+take )

recovery n comeback, pick-up, upwend, upswing, healing edworping (<OE edwyrping), greenshoot
recreätion n 1. fun and games 2. andweaving
recriminate vb - threap, blackblame
recruit n fledgling, freshman, greenhorn, newcomer inspan
rectangle n - righthook (cf. Du. rechthoek)
rectum n - endtharm (calque, see tharm)
recurrence n comeback, flashback withhauling (cf. NHG wiederholung)
recurrent adj on-and-off andbearing (<OE býrian 'to happen, pertain to, belong to')

withhauled (cf. NHG sich wiederholend)

redeem vb Forbuy alease (<OE aliesan)
redemption n - eftleesing (<OE eftlésung)
red ochre (Fe2O3) n - ruddle
redo vb - withdo
reduce n lessen, enlessen, lower -
redundance n - eftflowing (<OE eftflowung)
refer (to) vb hint forwise (to) (cf. Du. verwijzen; NHG verweisen)

mind, ettle

referee n shedsrighter (like Dutch scheidsrechter)
reference n hint, underlying meaning betug (cf. NHG bezug)
referendum n - folkspoll, folksstevening (Du. volksstemming), folksanswer (NHG. 'Volksentscheid')
refined adj trim, couth -
reflect vb show gain/withleam, gain/withshine
reflection n glance, backshine gain/withleaming, gain/withshining
reflect on vb think over, bethink, think about, look back on overthink (<OE oferþencan)
reform vb/n mend, shape up, straighten ameeding, edhuing, forbetter
reformer n - ameeder, edhuer (cf. OE geedhiwod "reformed, given new shape"), forbetterer (cf. NHG Verbesserer), rightener
refractory adj froward, wayward, willful witherhedging (<OE)
refrain n - offbreak
refrain vb forbear -
refrigerator n chiller coolshap (calque)
refuge n haven, bolt-hole, harbor, shelter lee (<OE hlēo)
refugee n runaway, fleer, hider

flightling (cf. Dan. flygtning, Du. vluchteling, NHG Flüchtling), haven seeker, lea(wo)man

refulgent adj shining -
refurbish vb overhaul furb, ednew
refuse n chaff, deadwood, dross, spilth, rubbish, waste -
refuse vb spurn, forbear asake, withquethe, forbid, score (<OE scorian)
refute vb belie, unsake

allay (<OE álecgan), forkithe (<OE forcýðan), onsake (<OE onsacan), withshove (<OE wiþscúfan), witherlay (cf. NHG widerlegen)

regard vb cast, eye, peep -
regarding prep about, as for, as to -
regency n - byredom (byrede + -dom)
regenerate adj freshen, make anew withquicken, withbeget (re- "with-" + genero "I beget"), edquicken (OE edcwicken)
regent n - byrede (by- "para-" + rede "ruler")
regicide n kingslayer kyne-murder, king-slay
regime n yoke, rike -
regiment n - fight(ing)thede
region n field; land, neck landship
regret vb rue -
regular adj everyday; steady reghelish (reghel borrowed from Latin to OE)
regulate vb oversee, wield, steer, lead -
regulation n wielding, overseeing, law insetness (<OE insetnes)
regulator n overseer -
reign n kingship, queenship rede, athelingship
reign vb (cf. regulate) rix (<OE rīxian, rīcsian), overbebeed (<OE oferbebēodan)
rein vb/n - tygel (<OE)
reïnforce vb strengthen, trim, gird, bolster, harden up, uphold, make firm, underset -
reject vb/n n: casting off, outcast

vb: nix; cast off, dump, fling off/away, slough off, throw away, toss, unload; spurn

n: forwarp (<OE forweorpan), withchoose (<OE wiþceosan)

vb: forwerp

offlean (cf. NHG ablehnen)

offwise (calque of many germ. languages)

rejoice vb gladden driem (<OE drīeman)
rejoice with vb - driem with, evenbliss (<OE evenblisan)
rejuvenate vb freshen, youthen edyoung

re- (“again”) +‎ Latin iuvenis (“young”) +‎ -ate

So, Gainyouthen or, Withyouthen

Foryouthen (NHG, verjüngen)

relapse vb backslide -
relatable adj - kinworthy, kinbere, kitheworthy, kithebere
relate phr vb bond, click; link kithe (<OE cythan)
related adj akin (to), kindred, sibbed to, tosameness; linked forwent (cf. NHG verwandt)
relative(s) n kin, kindred, kinfolk, kinsmen, kinship, sib, sibling, bysib, own flesh & blood

blood-bondling, bloodsib close: hyldenmay (<OE hyldenmǣġ)

murder of: maymurder (<OE mǣġmorðor), kinslaughter

relations n dealings, bond, link up, hook up, tie up, fellowship -
relationship n kinship, bearing; hookup, linkup, tie-up

maythhood (<OE mǣġðhād

relax vb chill (out),  loosen up, mellow out, unwind; ease, loosen, slack unspan (<OE onspannan, cf. NHG entspannen)
relaxation n fun and games; ease

stillness (<OE stillnes/stilnes)
unspan (<OE spannen)

relaxed adj smooth, loose, mellow unspant
release n outlung, loosing -
release vb free, let go, loosen alease
reliable adj trustworthy -
relieve n lighten, soothe, unburden, allay, still (the fears), salve, alight -
religion n faith, troth, worship lief
religious adj worshipful liefbound
relinquish vb

cough up, give up, hand over, yield; step down

upgive, agive (<OE agiefan, cf. NHG ergeben)
reluctant adj chary, unwilling, loath pullbackish
remain vb belave

belive (<OE belifan, cf. NHG bleiben, Du. blijven) bide, linger

remainder n lave, leavings, ort dross
remains n ashes, rubble, wreck; bones, stiff; leavings, leftovers, odds and ends laves
remedy n heeling, salve, boot (etymology 3) -
remember vb hark back, mind, think of, call to mind, bethink, mark, unforget, withcall, behold
memorize: bear in mind, keep in mind
edcall, eftcall, amone (<OE ġemunan), mind back, umbethink (<dialectal North & Scots English)
memorize: inmind, stockmind, inkeep
remind vb call to mind mane (<OE manian), edmind, eftmind, incall
reminder n - edminding, eftminding, umbethinking (<dialectal North & Scots English), incalling
reminisce vb - eftmind
remnant n leftover -
remote adj slight, slim, small; cold-eyed, stadoffish; hidden; deep, far-flung -
remote controlled (RC) adj wirelessly steered -
remove vb foredo (with immaterial object), unstay (<Old French <Middle Netherlandish), take out, draw out unshrithe
renaissance n - andblowing, agenbirth (agen (Again)+birth)
renal adj kidney -
rename vb - edname, agenclepe, edclepe, ed-deem
render vb cough up, give to, give up, hand over, yield -
renew vb overhaul ednew (<OE edniwian)
renewal n - ednewing
renewed adj - ednewed
renounce vb give up, forsake, step aside, step down; forswear, take back, unsay, withdraw, withsake asake ~ past: asook
renovate vb overhaul ednew (<OE edniwian)
rent (transitive) vb meed

"I meeded a room for myself".

rent (intransitive) vb foremeed

"They're foremeeding rooms cheaply".

reorganize vb - edstight
repair vb amend, heal, make hole, mend, put to rights -
repartee n backchat -
repeat vb say again, oversay; do over edsay, edledge (<OE edlǽcan)

withhaul (NHG. Wiederholen)

repeater n - electronics: withhauler
repel vb beat off, withdrive; buck, withstand, thrown back -
repent vb bemoan, rue forthink (cited by William Tyndale), after-think (Lancashire dialect)
repercussions vb - kickback
repetition n do-over edsaying
replace vb swap (out), switch (out) aset (a- + set, cf. NHG ersetzten)

substitue: outtrade (cf. NHG austauschen) edstowe, right (<OE rihtan)

replenish vb fill up, fill, make full again edfill
reply vb/n answer

andword (<OE andwyrd; cf. NHG Antwort, Du. antwoord)

Andsware (<OE andsware)

report v - bewrite
report n - bewriting
repose n rest -
repository n hoard -
reprehensible adj - forwarply (cf. NHG verwerflich)
represent vb stand for, betoken aspell, fortread (cf. NHG vertreten)
representative n spokes(wo)man

atstandand (<OE ætstandend)

aspellend, fortreader (cf. NHG Vertreter)

repress vb crack down on, crush, slap down, snuff out; hold back, sink, swallow bethryck (<be + OE þryccan, "press down")
reprimand vb upbraid, tell off, chide, scold -
reprove vb chide, tick off: mislike, tut over wite, threap (<OE þréapan)
reproach vb bawl out, berate, call down, flay, rag, upbraid: chide, tick off threigh, adwite (<OE þrēagan)
reptile n creeping thing (found in Bibles; translation of Hebrew) creepdeer (cf Nw. krypdyr)
crawldeer (cf Sw. kräldjur)

wormkin (<OE wyrmcyn)

republic n - ledeward, mootrick, rikewealth, wholewelfare; rike
reputation n mark, name namecouth (<OE namcuþ)
request n call, ask (rare) -
request vb ask, put in: beseech, call for, seek -
require vb need, tharf onseek (<OE onsécan)
requirement n need, must -
requite vb get even for, make good, atone, meed (see MW dictionary) forguld (<ME forgulde), foryield (<OE forġieldan, cf. ME foryelden) foryeild (scots variant),
rescribe vb write back edwrite
rescue vb free, bring off

nerry (<OE ánerian, NHG nähren)

redd (<OE hreddan “to save, deliver, recover, rescue”, cf. NHG./Du./Dan./Now. retten)

research n Seeking, delving, groundwork, combing, raking speering, speering

forshing (cf. NHG Forschung) forshening (cf. Dan. forskning)

<PG faurskon

legwork (informal)

underseek (cf. Du onderzoek and NHG. untersuchen); sake

research vb dig into, look into, delve into speer (<OE spyrian), underseek 
resemblance n alikeness, look, blee, bly suchness
resemble v seem like, look like, belike alike (cf. Du. gelijken, NHG gleichen)
resentment n down; huff, miff hattleness
reservation n booking forebeholding (cf. NHG Vorbehaltung)
reserve n keep, hoard; backup, fill-in berg
reserve vb book; keep, hoard; backup, fill-in berg (<OE beorgan)
reserve adj spare berg, forehold (cf. NHG vorbehalten)
reserved adj character: withdrawn
reservoir n - waterberg; waterhold
reside vb live, dwell abide, wone, erde, wick
residence n home, dwelling abode, erding, erdingstow
permit: dwell-leave (cf. Ic. dvalarleyfi), abode-leave
residue n ashes, rubble, wreck; leavings, leftovers, odds and ends stufflave
resign vb step down, forlet, bow out -
resilient adj springy, limber wending
resist vb withset, withstand, hinder, stand up to withlay
resistance n withsetting withlaying, backlash
resistant adj steady, steadfast, abiding, withstanding bestandy/bestanding (NHG. beständig)
resolute adj set

one-minded, stith (<OE stiþ)

resonate vb - withswing (cf. NHG mitschwingen)
resort n - vacation: holidayord (cf. Du. vakantieoord, NHG Ferienort)

recourse/refuge: outway (cf. Du. uitweg, NHG Ausweg)

resort vb - brook, betake
resource vb - rawstuff (NHG. Rohstoff), orshaft
respawn vb - backbirth
respect n heed, aught  onlook (<OE anlec), edsight
respect vb - aughten (<NHG. achten) (see aught)
respectable adj - aughtworthy
respectful adj - aughtful (cf. NHG achtvoll)
respond vb answer -
response n answer, feedback - Andsware/Andswere (<OE)
responsibility n plight, plighting, ownership Foranswering (NHG. Verantwortung)
responsible adj trustworthy, upstanding, bedrock, sound, plighted Foranswerly (NHG. Verantwortlich)

guilt: shildy (OE)

responsive adj quick, awake, sharp, open-minded, quick-minded, willing, answering -
rest (else) n leftover lave (<OE)
restart vb - edstar, start anew (from scratch)
restaurant n cheap: beanery

foodhouse, eating house

mealhall, reardhall (OE reordan 'to feast')

restore(ation) n freshen(ing)

ednew(ing) (<OE edniwung) edstow(ing), edstall(ing)

restored to life pt phr - edcwickened (<OE edcwic)
restrain vb bridle, fetter, hold back. belean (<OE)
restraint n bridle, fetter beleaning
restrict v betighten
restriction n betightening
result n outcome, outfollow, upshot, aftermath offleading (<Ic. af-leiðing), edspring (calque), eftspring (calque), fint (<OE finta, meaning 'consequence, result' also 'tail'), wastom (<OE wæstm)
resurrect vb gainrise (Cheke) edsty/edstie (<OE stīgan)
resurrection n gainrising (Cheke) -
retail vb deal in, sell, put up fordrive (cf. NHG vertreiben)
retain vb keep, withhold; hire athave
retaliate vb hit back, strike back, take an eye for an eye yield back, wend upon, foryield (<OE forgieldan) (c.f. NHG. vergelten)
retaliation n - foryielding (c.f. NHG. Vergeltung)
retard n dimwit, dolt dwease (<OE dwæs)
retard vb break, slacken -
retardation n slowing, latening -
retardation n - backwardness, beslowedness
retina n nethide (calque of German Netzhaut)
retire vb withdraw, yield, pull out
retirement n - forleaving, withdrawing
retort n yieldback, wisecrack, backlash -
retract vb take back, withdraw -
retreat vb withdraw -
retrieve vb fetch withfind
retrograde adj backward -
return n comeback; earnings, incoming

andcome, gainfare (<OE geanfær)

return vb come back edwhirve (<OE edhwirfan), edwend, andgive
reveal vb bare, unsheath, unfold, unlock yondshow, unhele, swettle
revel vb bathe, wallow, frolic -
revelation n telling, broadcasting, unearthing- unwryness <OE onwrigness, onwrihness

openbearing (Like Dutch, German and other G. tongues)

revelry n merry-making -
revenant n - andcomer
revenge vb yieldback, get back, get even with -
reverberation n - withercling
revenge n wrack, wreak -
revenge porn n wrackful whoreshowing
revere vb worship -
reverend adj hallowed -
reverie n daydreaming, woolgathering sweven
reverse/reversal n knock, setback; flip-flop -
revert vb - andwharve
revive vb freshen, breathe life back into

edquicken (<OE edcwician)

revolution n - ywhorft (<OE gehwyrft), overhaul, overthrow, overthrowing, uprisin

turning: whorft (<OE hwyrft), umbewrithing

revolve vb spin umbwerve
reward n -

meed (obs); afterlean (<OE æfterléan), foryield (obsolete)

reward vb -

meed; afterlean (OE léanian)

rhetoric n wind mathelcraft (OE maðelung), speechcraft
rhinoceros n - nosehorn (calque of Gk. rhinokeros (rhinos "nose" + keras "horn"; cf. Du. neushoorn, NHG Nashorn)

hornpig, hornhog, hornswine

rhombus n - rout (cf. Du. ruit; Ger. raute)
rhotacism n - arbrookdom, r-brook(ing)
rhotic adj - arfully, r-ly
rhoticity n - arfulness, r-ness
rhyme n rime -
rhythm n riff -
ridiculous adj chucklesome, sidesplitting, silly laugtherly (<OE hleahterlic)
rifle n - scratchgun, shattergun, shouldershooter (<OE sculdorscēota), furrowgun (<OE furhscēota)
righteous(ness) adj - rightwise(ness) (<OE rihtwís(nes))
rigid adj stiff, hard -
rigorous adj thorough -
rinse vb - spule/aspule (<OE āspylian, cf. Du. spoelen, NHG spülen)
riot/revolt/rebellion n - crowdburst
risk n gamble, long shot -
risky n gamblesome unsound
river n

ea, aa, stream, flow, flood, waterway

estuary: fleet (<OE fleot, ?Ebbsfleet)

flood (<OE flōd), waterpath

rite n - right, geright (<OE gerihte)

onsayedness (<OE onsægednes)

ritual n/adj ae (<OE æ)right (<OE gerihte)
river course n flow  ?fleetway
rivulet n

brook, stream, runnel, rith, sike

rindle small water course or gutter

small stream: rith (word still found in N Frisian ride, rie 'bed of running water')

burn, bourn (<OE burna 'brook, stream, spring or well water')

rob (though it first came from french the word is germanic, from frankish "robon" ) v sneaky filch

violent bereave, steal

robbery n sneaky filching

violent reaving

robin n redbreast ruddock
robust adj fit, hale, hearty, sound, whole; flush, lusty, ful-blooded: big, full, plush, rich; strong -
robot n - wileman (cf. Ic. vélmenni), sparkman, sparkthrall
rocket n - rock, rocker (OHG. rocko "distaff," ON. rokkr)
rodent n gnawer gnawdeer (cf. Du. knaagdier)
rogue n/adj - shirk
role n playwork, deedwork -




welt/walt (Eng. obsolete)

vb: trundle

skins (attested), smoking-skins



roller skates n - weltshoes (cf. NHG Rollschuh)

welter shoes

rollercoaster n big dipper, switchback eightway (cf. Du. achtbaan; NHG Achterbahn)
roman adj - romish
romance n love-tale, wonder-tale -
romanticism n - lovecraft

storm-and-throng (cf. H Du. Sturm und Drang)

rooster n cock (but "rooster" is also from a native root) -
rose (flower) n - loveblossom, lovebloom
rotate vb spin werve
rotisserie n spit-roaster spincooker, wervecooker
rotund adj wheelshaped -
round adj wheelshaped trind (shaped from OE trinda and NE trindle)
route n pathway, way -
router n networking: gateway (sometimes) -
royal adj kingly, cweenly -
royalty n kingship -
ruby adj/n - redhurst
rude adj unbehaved, uncouth, unbecoming, unfitting -
ruin vb/n wreck, mar, downfall -
rule vb lead, look over, oversee, rix (att'd <OE rīxian, rīcsian), overwatch, wald rede, hold sway
rule n law -
ruler n drighten, leader, overseer, overwatcher reder
ruling adj leading, lordly -
rumour n hearsay -
rural adj outburg, fieldly lundly
Russia n - Russland
rustic n backwoodsman, boor, bumpkin, bushwhacker, clodhopper, churl, crofter, greenhorn, hayseed, hind, hillbilly, husbandman, plowman, redneck, share-cropper, swain, woodsman -
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