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Staff V of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
vacancy n black hole, emptiness;
bareness,
-
vacant adj bare; fallow, off; deadpan,
numb; forgotten, forsaken
toom (<OE tóm)
vacate vb empty -
vacation n break, holiday, leave -
vaccine n booster, jab imper (cf. NHG impfen 'inoculate' + -er); impwork, impware (cf. NHG impfstoff)
vacuity n black hole, emptiness; bareness -
vacuum n tow toom (<OE tōm 'empty')
vacuum cleaner n sweeper dustsucker, crumb thief
vaettir n wight -
vagabond n - waybound
vagrancy n - eardless wandering,
vagrant n drifter, floater, wanderer eardless wanderer
vague adj fuzzy; dim; shadowy; hazy unsuttle (<ME sutel <OE sweotol clear)
vagina n

cunt (vulgar),
pussy (slang; also vulgar),
womanhood (also slang)

sheath (translation of the Latin,
<OE scæþ, cf. Du. Schede,
NHG. Scheide),

maytril

birthhole

vain adj

1. cocky, high-and-mighty, snotty;
2. worthless, idle,
3. empty, shallow,
worthless, hollow

-
vain, in phr for nothing, worthlessly, in wanhope -
valediction n goodbye, farewell, leave-taking -
valerian n all-heal -
valet n theen, steward -
valiant adj bold, doughty, fearless, stalworth -
valid adj sound, well-grounded -
valkyrie n - walcury
valley n dale
deep, of a stream: dene
wide, grassy: slade
narrow, steep: clove
comb, deneland, earthdene,
valorous adj - ellenful
valour n ellen -
valueable adj/n worthy, worthful
value n worth merit: meed,
value vb worthen -
vampire n bloodsucker, shark, wolf dreigh (<OE dréag)
bloodfiend, bloodnicker
vanadium n vanadistuff (<ON Vanadís)
vanguard n - andward (calque)
Vánir n sea gods, storm gods, fishing gods, shipwreckers, freight-gods, freight-ghosts, hoard-ghosts; foe gods, foes; water wights, fiends, mermen Wones (OED, ‘prosperous ones, bountiful ones: treasure demons of the sea’)
vanish vb fade, wither, melt, sink fordwine, quink, swinden/ swind (<OE swinden; cf. NHG schwinden, Du. zwinden, Dan. svinde, LG swinnen, & others)
vanity n pride, idleness idle, renk
vanquish vb beat, win, downtread besye (cf. NHG besiegen)
vapour n mist, steam, loft

athom (<OE ǽðm),
damp (original meaning of damp),
breath, watersmoke

variant n offshoot, sundry sundering
variation n sundriness frothering
offwrixling (cf. Fr. ôfwikseling)
variegated adj rainbow; dotted; many-hued manyhued
variety n kind, many kinds -
various adj many, manifold, sundry, rainbow mistly (<OE mistlic)

forshed (cf. NHG verschieden)

vas deferens n - seedladder (calque)
vassal n feeman, knave, thane, man, churl neat, younger, maythegn
vast adj wide, great, endless -
vault of heaven n -

rother (<OE rodor),
heavenwhalf (<OE hofonhwealf)
pl: heavenwhalve
(<OE heheofonhwealfa)

n holy, hallowed wigh (OED), Weoh (<ME weoh 'sacred, holy'), Way
veal n calf calf-flesh
vector n wayload -
veer vb swerve, trundle; bend -
veil n wimple rift, helster
vegan n madman greentheater, wortaloneater
vegetable n green, greens foodwort, greenth (Du. groente)
vegetarian n - greens-eater, fleshlesseater
vehicle n wain, craft waincraft; farewain, farecraft
vein n - edder (<OE ǣdre, cf. NHG Ader)

leat, bloodburrow

velcro n - graspcloth, fangcloth
velociraptor  n - quickreacker, dashsnatcher, quickfanger
velvet n/adj - furrel (fur + dim. -el)
vendor n seller, dealer -
venesection n bloodletting -
venison n deer meat hartflesh, roeflesh (cf. NHG Rehfleisch)
venom n/vb bane atter
vent n hole, hatch; window -
venturesome adj daring, bold, free-swinging thriste (<OE)
venue n stead; coming showstow (cf. NHG Schauplatz)
veracious adj true, truthful luter (<OE hlutor)
verb n doing-word deedword, workword (cf. Du. werkwoord), tideword(cf. Fris.)
verbal adj wordy; spoken, unwritten,
word-of-mouth
-
verbatim adj word-for-word, word for word as was said, wordly (NHG. wörtlich)
verbose adj long-winded; speechy -
verbosity n wordiness speechiness
verdant n green, lush -
verge n brink, edge, threshold -
verify vb find out, look at/into betrue, besooth
verily adv truly, soothly, indeed, forsooth, iwis -
verity n

truth. (see
Truth and sooth, verity and reality)

-
vernacular n unbookish, everyday speech mean speech

Umgangspeech
(cf. NHG umgangssprache)

(see umgang)

vernal adj spring -
verse n fit yedding (<OE geddung)

stave, staff

leethcraft (OE)

version n reading, betokening

offshoot; eld

fading (<OE fadung), leaf,
wend, reckoning, aspelling

versus prep against -
vertebra n back bone warvel (<OE hweorf, cf. Du. wervel, NHG wirfel)
vertical adj standing, upright weft
vertically adv heightwise, upward(s),
up and down; staffwise
-
vertigo n - swindlehood (cf. Dn. svimmelhed)
veruca n wart -
vervain n - ash-throat (<OE æscðrote)
very adj/adv

1. sore, sorely; way, highly;
fairly; greatly, mighty, through-,
ful-, for-, so;

2. much, truly, soothly, forsooth,
indeed, rather, rattling,
mickle, dead, fele, fell;

3. same, selfsame;

4. sheer; utter;

5. true, truly, full;

6. true;

7. rightful, lawful

very much:
most (att'd <OE mǽst), well

swithly (<OE swíðe + ly)

very fair: forfair (<OE forfæger)

very good: eregood (<OE ǽrgód),
fulgood (<OE fulgód)

very guilty: throughshildy
(<OE þurhscyldig)

very many: fele (<OE fela),
foremany (<OE foremanig),
formany (<OE formanig),
full many

very much: forswithe (<OE forswíðe),
fortharl (<OE forþearle),
fulswithe (<OE fulswíðe),
stithe (<OE stíðe),
tharl (<OE þearle),
yarrow (<OE gearwe)

very old: orold (<OE oreald)

very wealthy: throughspeedy (<OE þurhspédig)

full (<ME ful; meant the same thing as very)

vesica n bladder -
vespertilines n bat rere-mouse, rye-mouse, flitter-mouse
vessel n vat, ship -
vest n British: undershirt
American: waistcoat
-
vestibule n -

cavortown (<OE cafortūn),
foreburrow (<OE foreburh),
foredure (<OE foreduru),
coavertown (<OE cāfortūn),
inburrow (<OE inburh),
wiketown (<OE wīctūn)

entrance to: infarreld (<OE infæreld),
ingang (<OE)

def. 2: foredyrre (<OE),
forthtie (<OE forþtīge)

def. 3: foredere (<OE foredere),
forestie (<OE forestige)

vex vb nettle

teen (<OE teonian), grill (<OE grillan),
dreve (<OE drefan), begrame,
dreck (<OE dreccan), abeilan

vexation n feaze

dreevedness (<OE drefednes),
grame (<ME<OE gramian)

via conj by -
vibrate vb shiver, shudder, quiver, shake, rattle -
vicar n elder, holy man, leader speller, spelland (<OE speliend); steadman
vicarious adj instead wician, wice
vicepresident n - underforesitter
viceroy n - underking (<OE undercyning)
vicinity n nearness; neighbourhood nighth
vicious adj wicked, evil, bad; marred baderdy (cf. NHG bösartig)

nithe

vicissitude n ups and downs, seesaw

ebbs and flows, ebb and neap,
wends and wynds, wax and wanes

victim n - tiber (<OE tīber), armshed
victor n winner syer, siger, sye(wo)man, sig(wo)man
victorious adj winning syly, syely, sigly, syrich, syerich, sigrich (cf. NHG siegreich)
victory n win

sy, sye, sig

video n

film, short film, short,
show, showing, broadcast

ewing (<OE īwung; meaning showing/revealing); showstrip
video CD n show-dish white book
video game n game

ewing game

reckoner game,
stream game

Vietnam n - Vietland, Southern Viet, Beyondsouthland
Vietnamese adj - Viet, Vietish, Beyond-southerner
view n outlook, eyeshot, sight, insight outsene
view vb look, watch, see, gaze, gawk -
viewer n onlooker, witness, watcher; seer -
vigil n wakefulness, wake, watch -
vigilance n heedness, wareness, watchfulness rathing
vigilant adj eye-bright, wakeful, aware,
wary, watchful, wide awake,
wakerife, ware, sharp
-
vigilante n

watchman, warder, ward,
keeper, overseer

folkreve (<OE folcgérefa)

vigilance comittee member selfbeadle, selfsheriff

vigour n liveliness, drive -
vigorous adj hearty, rathe, lusty,
driving, lively, hale, yauld; strong; alne
rathsome (OE hræþ)
vile adj evil, wicked, loathsome; foul -
Vili n ghost brother Will
village n hem, thorpe/thorp/dorp, wick,
town, whistle-stop
hemling, ham
villain n wretch, ne'er-do-well, cheat, black hat, baddy, evil-doer, wrong-doer, rotter, knave, scumbag nithing (<OE niðing)
vindicate v uphold, whitewash, forgive
vine n - droovebeam (cf. Fr. druvebeam)
vinegar n - atched (<OE æced)
viola (botany) n - apple-leaf (<OE æppel-lēaf)
viola

(music)

n - midfiddle
violate vb breach; befoul overnim, sorthe, forbreak (<OS farbrekan)
violence n foul play

bloodshed; recklessness

threat, hest, hattleness, nid,
strack, strength, swithness, unreck
violent adj blood-soaked; stormy; dreadful; mad; reckless; wrathful

hest (<OE haeste), hattle,
riff, tharl grimful (<OE grimful)

violet adj - tever (<OE teafor), bawse (<OE basu)
violin n fiddle -
violoncello n - knee fiddle
virgin n maiden unswiven
virginity n maidenhood unswivenhood, famenhood
Virtual Reality n - Aped Warehood (literally: simulated reality)
virtually adv almost, nearly, seemingly, all but -
virtue n worth, uprightness; doughtiness, heart; goodness

douth (<OE duguþ)

virtuous adj right-minded douthsome (cf. Du. deugdzaam)
virus n - smitter (cf. Sw. smitta), weevil
visage n blee, likeness neb (<OE nebb); onsene (OED)
viscosity n thickflowingness, stickiness, clinginess; thickness -
viscous adj thickflowing (cf. NHG dickflüssig), sticky, clingy, ropy -
viscum n mistletoe, balday's bane -
visible adj seen seenly (<ME seheliche); seesome
vision n sight; dream, sweven; spae, spaedom -
visionary adj farsighted, foresighted; spaeman -
visit vb call upon, drop in, see fandle (<OFR)

beseek (<OE bísæce,
cf. NHG besuchen)

see home (ex. I saw my father home yesterday.)

visit n - fandle

beseeking (<OE bísæce,
cf. NHG Besuch)

visitor n caller, guest fandler

beseeker

vital adj

flush, lusty, red-blooded; mettlesome,
springy; needed; fell; key; lively, snell, alne

-
vitality n liveliness, beans dodrive
vitamin n - life-stuff (Loan oversetting of "vitamin"; cf. Ic. fjörefni)
vocabulary n word-hoard wordstock, wordstow
vocal adj loud, outspoken -
vociferous adj outspoken, loudmouthed -
vodka n - Russlandish lifewater, firewater
voice n steven, (OED, <OE stefn)
("With dreary heart and
sorrowful steven ..")
one of the few words to
rhyme with 'heaven' steaven
(so the way it is written does
indeed rhyme with heaven)

stevvon

steven, stimm (<OE, cf. NHG Stimme)
pl: stevens, stimmen (Cf. NHG Stimmen) 

reard, Sc. reird, raird (<OE reord)

leathor (<OE hlēoðor)

sweyleathor (<OE swēġhlēoðor)
pl: sweyleathru

swey (<OE swēġ),
pl: sweyäs
(<OE swēġas)

of thunder: thunderradestefen
(<OE þunnorrādstefn)
pl: thunderradestefna
(<OE þunnorrādstefna)

of water:
watersteven (<OE wæterstefn)

headwooth (<OE hēafodwōþ)

voiced adj soft, weak, flat -
voiceless adj hard, strong, sharp Stimmless

stevenless (calque)

void n/adj

n: black hole, emptiness

adj: bereft

roum (<OR rūm)

toom (<OE tōm)

voilà interj behold, lo -
volcano n - firebarrow, firefell
völkisch adj folkish (att'd; <OE folcisc) -
volleyball n - flightball (calque)
volume n book: wad
acoustics: din, loudness

physics: bulk,
roommeal(cf. Ic. rúmmál),
inhold (cf. Du. inhoud)

voluntary adj willing, freewilling -
volunteer n - freewill worker, freewiller

willing hands (attested)

vomer n - ploughshare bone
vomit vb

spew, puke, throw up,
hurl, retch, upchuck

-
vomit n spew, puke, sick, throw-up, hurl -
vote n/vb poll, show of hands, choosing
vb: choose
steven
vow n/vb oath, behest, pledge, troth, word behest, behight
vowel n - clipple (<OE clipol), clipend
voyage n/vb sail farfareld
vulgar adj low, filthy, ill-bred, churlish churly (<OE ceorllic)
vulnerable adj helpless, powerless, strengthless, mightless
vulpine adj foxlike -
vulture n - geir (calque), ulter, tearbird
vulva n - maidblade (<OE mæġþblæd), maidleaf (calque)
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