Staff V of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
vacancy n black hole, emptiness, bareness -
vacant adj bare, fallow, off, deadpan, numb; forgotten, forsaken toom (<OE tóm)
vacate vb empty -
vacation n break, holiday, leave -
vaccine n imper (cf. NHG impfen 'inoculate' + -er); impwork, impstuff impware, life-drops (oral); needle-drops, one-shot-wonder (slang)
vaccinate n needle-up
vacuity n black hole, emptiness, bareness -
vacuum n tow toom (<OE tōm 'empty')
vacuum cleaner n sweeper dustsucker, crumb thief
vaettir n wight -
vagabond n - waybound
vagrancy n - eardless wandering,
vagrant n drifter, floater, wanderer eardless wanderer
vague adj fuzzy; dim; shadowy; hazy unsuttle (<ME sutel <OE sweotol clear)
vagina n

cunt (vulgar), pussy (slang; also vulgar), womanhood (also slang)

sheath (translation of the Latin, <OE scæþ, cf. Du. Schede, NHG. Scheide), maytril, birthhole

vain adj

1. cocky, high-and-mighty, snotty;
2. worthless, idle,
3. empty, shallow,
worthless, hollow

-
vain, in phr for nothing, worthlessly, in wanhope -
valediction n goodbye, farewell, leave-taking -
valerian n all-heal -
valet n theen, steward -
valiant adj bold, doughty, fearless, stalworth doughty
valid adj sound, well-grounded -
valkyrie n - walcury
valley n dale
deep, of a stream: dene
wide, grassy: slade
narrow, steep: clove
comb, deneland, earthdene
valorous adj - ellenful
valour n ellen -
valueable adj worthy, worthful dearworthy (<OE dēorwyrthe and <OE dẹ̄̆re-wŏrth)
value n worth merit: meed
value vb worthen -
vampire n bloodsucker, shark, wolf dreigh (<OE dréag), bloodfiend, bloodnicker
vanadium n vanadistuff (<ON Vanadís)
vanguard n - andward (calque)
Vánir n sea gods, storm gods, fishing gods, shipwreckers, freight-gods, lade-ghosts, hoard-ghosts; foe gods, foes; water wights, fiends, mermen Wones (OED, ‘prosperous ones, bountiful ones: treasure demons of the sea’)
vanish vb wither, melt, sink fordwine, quink, swind (<OE swinden; cf. NHG schwinden, Du. zwinden, Dan. svinde, LG swinnen, & others), betwing or twing (cf. NHG bezwingen)
vanity n pride, idleness idle, renk
vanquish vb beat, win, downtread besye (cf. NHG besiegen)
vapour n mist, steam, loft

athom (<OE ǽðm), damp (original meaning of damp), breath, watersmoke

variant n offshoot, sundry sundering
variation n sundriness forothering, offwrixling (cf. Fr. ôfwikseling)
variegated adj rainbow, dotted, many-hued manyhued
variety n kind, many kinds -
various adj many, manifold, sundry, rainbow mistly (<OE mistlic), forshed (cf. NHG verschieden), manifoldly (<OE manig-fealdlīc and <ME manī-fældlīce), fele (<OE fela)
vas deferens n - seedladder (calque)
vassal n feeman, knave, thane, man, churl neat, younger, maythegn
vast adj wide, great, endless -
vault n - wholve (ME wholve)
vault of heaven n -

rother (<OE rodor), heavenwhalf (<OE hofonhwealf) pl: heavenwhalve (<OE heheofonhwealfa), heaven's wholve (ME, see above)

n holy, hallowed wigh (OED), Weoh (<ME weoh 'sacred, holy'), Way
veal n calf calf-flesh
vector n wayload -
veer vb swerve, trundle; bend -
veil n wimple rift, helster
vegan n - greentheater, wortaloneater
vegetable n green, greens foodwort, greenth (Du. groente)
vegetarian n - greens-eater, greenmonger, fleshlesseater
vehicle n wain, craft waincraft; farewain, farecraft
vein n - edder (<OE ǣdre, cf. NHG Ader), leat, bloodburrow
velcro n - graspcloth, fangcloth
velociraptor  n - quickreacker, dashsnatcher, quickfanger
velvet n/adj - furrel (fur + dim. -el)
vendor n seller, dealer -
venesection n blood-letting -
venison n deer meat hartflesh, roeflesh (cf. NHG Rehfleisch)
venom n/vb bane atter (<OE ātor)
venomous adj - attery (<OE ǣttriġ)
vent n hole, hatch; window -
venturesome adj daring, bold, free-swinging thriste (<OE)
venue n stead, coming showstow
veracious adj true, truthful, wordfast luter (OE: hlutor): lutter (ME)
verb n doing-word deedword, workword, tideword
verbal adj wordy; spoken, unwritten, word-of-mouth -
verbatim adj word-for-word, word for word as was said, wordly (NHG. wörtlich)
verbose adj long-winded; speechy, wordy -
verbosity n wordiness speechiness
verdant n green, lush -
verge n brink, edge, threshold -
verify vb find out, look at/into betrue, besooth
verily adv truly, soothly, indeed, forsooth, iwis -
verity n

truth (see Truth and sooth, verity and reality)

-
vernacular n unbookish, everyday speech mean speech, umbgang speech (cf. NHG Umgangssprache, see umbgang)
vernal adj spring -
verse n fit yedding (<OE geddung), stave, staff, leethcraft (OE)
version n reading, betokening

offshoot; eld

fading (<OE fadung), leaf, wend, reckoning, aspelling

versus prep against -
vertebra n back bone warvel (<OE hweorf, cf. Du. wervel, NHG wirfel)
vertical adj standing, upright weft
vertically adv heightwise, upward(s), up and down, staffwise -
vertigo n - swindlehood (cf. Dn. svimmelhed)
veruca n wart -
vervain n - ash-throat (<OE æscðrote)
very adj/adv

1. sore, sorely; way, highly; fairly; greatly, mighty, through-, ful-, for-, so;

2. much, truly, soothly, forsooth, indeed, rather, rattling, mickle, dead, fele, fell;

3. same, selfsame;

4. sheer; utter;

5. true, truly, full;

6. true;

7. rightful, lawful

very much: most (att'd <OE mǽst), well

swithly (<OE swíðe + ly)

very fair: forfair (<OE forfæger)

very good: eregood (<OE ǽrgód), fulgood (<OE fulgód)

very guilty: throughshildy (<OE þurhscyldig)

very many: fele (<OE fela), foremany (<OE foremanig), formany (<OE formanig)

very much: forswithe (<OE forswíðe), fortharl (<OE forþearle), fulswithe (<OE fulswíðe), stithe (<OE stíðe), tharl (<OE þearle), yarrow (<OE gearwe)

very old: orold (<OE oreald)

very wealthy: throughspeedy (<OE þurhspédig), full (<ME ful; meant the same thing as very)

vesica n bladder -
vespertilines n bat reremouse, ryemouse, flittermouse
vessel n vat, ship -
vest n British: undershirt
American: waistcoat
-
vestibule n -

cavortown (<OE cafortūn), foreburrow (<OE foreburh), foredure (<OE foreduru), coavertown (<OE cāfortūn), inburrow (<OE inburh), wiketown (<OE wīctūn)

entrance to: infarreld (<OE infæreld), ingang (<OE)

def. 2: foredyrre (<OE), forthtie (<OE forþtīge)

def. 3: foredere (<OE foredere), forestie (<OE forestige)

vex vb nettle

teen (<OE teonian), grill (<OE grillan), dreve (<OE drefan), begrame, dreck (<OE dreccan), abeilan

vexation n feaze

dreevedness (<OE drefednes), grame (<ME<OE gramian)

via conj by, through, by way of -
vibrate vb shiver, shudder, quiver, shake, rattle -
vicar n elder, holy man, leader speller, spelland (<OE speliend); steadman
vicarious adj instead wician, wice
vicepresident n - underforesitter
viceroy n - underking (<OE undercyning)
vicinity n nearness; neighbourhood nighth
vicious adj wicked, evil, bad; marred baderdy (cf. NHG bösartig), nithe
vicissitude n ups and downs, seesaw

ebbs and flows, ebb and neap, wends and wynds, wax and wanes

victim n - tiber (<OE tīber), armshed
victor n winner syer, siger, sye(wo)man, sig(wo)man
victorious adj winning syerich (cf. NHG siegreich), syely (<OE siġelīċ)
victory n win

sye (<OE siġe)

video n

film, short film, short, show, showing, broadcast

ewing (<OE īwung; meaning showing/revealing); showstrip
video CD n show-dish white book
video game n game

ewing game, reckoner game, stream game

Vietnam n - Vietland, Southern Viet, Beyondsouthland
Vietnamese adj - Vietish
view n outlook, eyeshot, sight, insight outsene
view vb look, watch, see, gaze, gawk -
viewer n onlooker, witness, watcher; seer -
vigil n wakefulness, wake, watch -
vigilance n heedness, wareness, watchfulness rathing
vigilant adj eye-bright, all-eyed, wakeful, aware, wary, watchful, wide awake,
wakerife, ware, sharp
wakesome (cf. NHG wachsam)
vigilante n

watchman, warder, ward, keeper, overseer

folkreve (<OE folcgérefa)

vigilance comittee member: selfbeadle, selfsheriff

vigour n liveliness, drive -
vigorous adj hearty, rathe, lusty, goey, driving, lively, hale, yauld; strong; alne rathsome (OE hræþ)
vile adj evil, wicked, loathsome, foul -
Vili n ghost brother Will
village n hem, thorpe/thorp/dorp, wick, town, whistle-stop hemling, ham
villain n wretch, ne'er-do-well, cheat, black hat, baddy, evil-doer, wrong-doer, rotter, knave, scumbag nithing (<OE niðing)
vindicate v uphold, whitewash, forgive -
vine n - droovebeam (cf. Fr. druvebeam)
vinegar n - atched (<OE æced)
vintage n - barn-find (antique: more tha 100 yers old; vintage several decades old)
viola (botany) n - apple-leaf (<OE æppel-lēaf)
viola (music) n - midfiddle
violate vb breach, befoul overnim, sorthe, forbreak (<OS farbrekan)
violence n foul play, bloodshed, recklessness threat, hest, hattleness, nid, strack, strength, swithness, unreck,wald or awald (cf. NHG Gewalt), eath (<OE eafoþ)
violent adj blood-soaked, stormy, dreadful, mad, reckless, wrathful

heast (<OE haest), hattle, riff, tharl grimful (<OE grimful), waldsome (cf. NHG gewaltsam)

violet adj - tever (<OE teafor), bawse (<OE basu)
violin n fiddle -
violoncello n - knee fiddle
virgin n maiden unswiven
virginity n maidenhood unswivenhood, famenhood
Virtual Reality n - Aped Warehood (literally: simulated reality)
virtually adv almost, nearly, seemingly, all but -
virtue n worth, uprightness, doughtiness, heart, goodness

douth (<OE duguþ)

virtuous adj right-minded douthsome (cf. Du. deugdzaam)
virus n - smitter (cf. Sw. smitta), weevil
visage n blee, likeness neb (<OE nebb); onsene (OED)
vis-à-vis prep in (the) light of with casting to
viscosity n thick-flowingness, stickiness, clinginess; thickness -
viscous adj thick-flowing (cf. NHG dickflüssig), sticky, clingy, ropy -
viscum n mistletoe, balday's bane -
visible adj seen eyeseen (O.E.), seenly; seesome, seely (<ME sehelīche)
vision n sight; dream, sweven; spae, spaedom -
visionary adj farsighted, foresighted; spaeman -
visit vb call upon, drop in, see, come by fandle (<OFR), beseek (<OE bísæce, cf. NHG besuchen), see home (ex. I saw my father home yesterday.)
visit n - fandle, beseeking (<OE bísæce, cf. NHG Besuch)
visitor n caller, guest fandler beseeker
vital adj

flush, lusty, red-blooded; mettlesome, springy; needed; fell; key; lively, snell, alne

-
vitality n liveliness, beans dodrive
vitamin n - lifestuff (loan oversetting of "vitamin"; cf. Ic. fjörefni)
vocabulary n word-hoard wordstock, wordstow
vocal adj loud, outspoken -
vociferous adj outspoken, loudmouthed -
voice n steven, (OED, <OE stefn) ("With dreary heart and sorrowful steven ..") one of the few words to rhyme with 'heaven' steaven (so the way it is written does indeed rhyme with heaven), stevvon

reard (Sc. reird, raird (<OE reord)), leathor (<OE hlēoðor), sweyleathor (<OE swēġhlēoðor), swey (<OE swēġ)

of thunder: thunderradestefen(<OE þunnorrādstefn)
pl: thunderradestefna (<OE þunnorrādstefna)

of water: watersteven (<OE wæterstefn), headwooth (<OE hēafodwōþ)

voiced adj soft, weak, flat -
voiceless adj hard, strong, sharp stevenless (calque)
void n/adj

n: black hole, emptiness

adj: bereft

roum (<OR rūm), toom (<OE tōm)

voilà interj behold, lo -
volcano n - firebarrow, firefell
völkisch adj folkish -
volleyball n - flightball (calque)
volume n book: wad
acoustics: din, loudness

physics: bulk, roommeal (cf. Ic. rúmmál), inhold (cf. Du. inhoud)

voluntary adj willing, freewilling, thank-you working -
volunteer n - freewill worker, freewiller, willing hands (attested), thank-you worker (slang)
volunteering n - thank-you working
vomer n - ploughshare bone
vomit vb

spew, puke, throw up, hurl, retch, upchuck

-
vomit n spew, puke, sick, throw-up, hurl -
vote n/vb poll, show of hands, choosing
vb: choose
steven
vow n/vb oath, behest, pledge, troth, word behest, behight
vowel n - clipple (<OE clipol), clipend
voyage n/vb sail farfareld
vulgar adj low, filthy, ill-bred, churlish churly (<OE ceorllic)
vulnerable adj helpless, powerless, strengthless, mightless -
vulpine adj foxlike -
vulture n - geir (calque), ulter, tearbird
vulva n - maidblade (<OE mæġþblæd), maidleaf (calque)
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