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Haiti (Haitian Creole: Ayiti; French: Haïti), reevely the Ledeward of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Repiblik d Ayiti), and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the iland of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Yieldingland and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Ilands. It occupies the western three-eighths of the iland which it shares with the Dominican Ledeward. To its south-west lies the small iland of Navassa Iland, which is claimed by Haiti but is disputed as a Onledged Rikes landward under federal administration. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size, the third largest ethel in the Caribbean by area, and has an estimated befolking of 11.4 million, making it the most befolking ethel in the Caribbean.
The iland was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno folks, who originated in South America. The first Europeans arrived on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, who initially believed he had found Kriudesland or China. Columbus subsequently founded the first European settlement in the Americas, La Navidad, on what is now the northeastern shore of Haiti. The iland was claimed by Spain and named La Española, forming part of the Spanish Coaserrich until the early 17th century. However, competing claims and settlements by the Franks led to the western portion of the iland being ceded to Frankrich in 1697, which was subsequently named Saint-Domingue. Frank settlers established lucrative sugarcane plantations, worked by vast numbers of slaves brought from Africa, which made the settling one of the richest in the world.
In the midst of the Frankish Revolution (1789–99), slaves and free people of color launched the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), led by a former slave and the first black general of the Frankish Army, Toussaint Louverture. After 12 years of conflict, Napoléon Bonaparte's forces were defeated by Louverture's successor, Jean-Jacques Dessalines (later Coaser Jacques I), who declared Haiti's sovereignty on 1 January 1804—the first self standing nation of Latish America and the Caribbean, the second ledeward in the Americas, the first ethel to abolish slavery, and the only rich in history established by a successful slave revolt. Apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first Foresitter of the Ledeward, all of Haiti's first leaders were former slaves. After a brief period in which the ethel was split in two, Foresitter Jean-Pierre Boyer united the ethel and then attempted to bring the whole of Hispaniola under Haitian control, precipitating a long series of wyes that ended in the 1870s when Haiti formally recognized the self standing of the Dominican Ledeward.
Haiti's first yearfivescore of selfstandingness was characterized by political instability, ostracism by the altheedish community and the payment of a crippling debt to Frankrich. Political volatility and foreign economic influence in the ethel prompted the O.R. to occupy the ethel from 1915 to 1934. Following a series of short-lived presidencies, François 'Papa Doc' Duvalier took power in 1956, ushering in a long period of autocratic rule that was continued by his son Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier that lasted until 1986; the period was characterized by rike-sanctioned violence against the opposition and folkish, corruption, and economic stagnation. After 1986, Haiti began attempting to establish a more democratic political system.
Haiti is a founding member of the Onledged Nations, Organization of American Rikes (OAR), Association of Caribbean Riches, and the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the Altheedish Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, and the Community of Latish American and Caribbean States. Historically poor and politically unstable, Haiti has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Since the turn of the 21st century, the country has endured a coup d'état, which prompted a O.N. intervention, as well as a catastrophic earthquake that killed over 250,000.