Old nordish about 900

This is the alongsideward spread of Old Norse and kin tungs in the early 10th hundredyear. The red ground is the spread of the speech Old West Northish; the orange ground is the spread of the speech Old East Northish. The pink ground is Old Gutnish and the green ground is the spread of the other teutonish tungs with which Old Northish still kept some evenway understanding.

orth Sea Teutonish tung, like Old Freesish Tung and Old Saxish. It is also akin to Old Northish (and therefore New Icelandish), although less nearly akin, as these are North Theedish tungs.


Beginning and growthEdit

Old English was born of the sundry Teutonish speechkinds brought over from northern Europe. Old English did not belive the same throughout the 700 or so years it was spoken (see timeline of the Anglo-Saxon incoming and takeover of Britain) from the Anglo-Saxon incomings that shope England in the 5th yearhundred to some time after the Norman infaring in 1066 RE, when the tongue underwent a great and startling overhaul. Throughout these early times it took some of its hue and makeup from other leids that it came upon, such as the Welsh tongues and the two Old Norse by-tongues, spoken by the Vikings who were coming into, taking over, and making themselves at home in wide stretches in northern and eastern England, which became known as Danelaw.

Teutonish birthEdit

The thing bearing most weightily on the ongoing Old English overhaul was its Teutonish wordstock, word-string makeup and stavecraft which it shared with its speechkin on the europish mainland. Some of the tongue’s hallmarks were found only in West Teutonish kindred tongues to which Old English belongs, while some things were bequests from the Old-Teutonish tongue from which all Teutonish tongues are believed to have astreamed from.

Like other West Teutonish tongues at the time Old English was fully word-bending with five stavecraft endings, being in English : the Namendlic (nominative), Wrayendlic (accusative), Strainendlic (genitive), Forgivendlic (dative), and Atbraidendlic (instrumental), which had not only endings giving onefold and morefold in tell, but also an ending giving twifold in tell. Old English also gave kind to all namewords, such as those that show unbegasted (lifeless) things; as seo sunne (the Sun) was queanish, while se mona (The Moon) was carlish. (see nowaday German: die sonne vs der Mond)

Borrowings and loan words from LatinEdit

A great many from those who could read (mostly monks and churchmen) knew well, or at least knew some, Latin, the binding tongue of forflung, learned lede in Europe at that time. Sometimes one can give an about-time or even the year for a Latin word's incoming into Old English from the luide-shifts it had undergone. They were at least three timespans that Latin’s sway upon Old English outstands. The first happened when the Saxons were still in their homeland on the Europish mainland before they left to go to England. The second began when the Anglo-Saxons took up Christian belief and churchmen speaking Latin became rife throughout England. The third and, by far the greatest word borrowing staddled on Latin, happened after the Norman Infaring in 1066 AJ, when a great tell came into the tongue. Mostly “Oyl” words from mainstream Latin, although a weighty stock from Norse also came into the tongue, often hiding under a Norman hame. The Norman's coming marks the beginning of Old English's end and Middle English's birth.

The tongue was also otherwise ashapen by the withtrending from and forletting of the Runic starrof, or staffhoard (also known as the futhorc) and taking-on instead the Latin starrof, Old English words were spelt as they were stevened; bookstaves not stevened in today’s English, such as the “k” in “knight”, were stevened in Old English. Thus the outspeaking of the hard “c-” in cniht, the Old English word for knight. Another thing spelling words as they were stevened was to make the tongue's spelling fickle -- with a word's spelling often showing a lot about the writer's by-leid, its luide-set and luide-lore, and his shire. Often the spelling of a word would wend from writer to writer, and even from work to work by the same writer. Thus it could happen that the word “and” could be spelt either and or ond

Old English spelling therefore was thought to be more "bewildering" than modern English spelling, although it can at least be said that it put forth many its louds truly, while today's English spelling often cannot. Mostly today's those learning Old English begin by learning its set ways of spelling words and are only let go on to learn its spelling’s unset ways after they have mastered the tongue’s loud-lore.

Old Norse and Viking swayEdit

The twoth great loanword wellspring flowing into Old English was Scandinavish words brought in at the time the Viking were harrying the land and its dwellers in the ninth and tenth hundred years. Also, other than the great many steadnames, these words were the things used in every-day life, and words about the ways and sway of Danelaw (that is, the Viking folk strongholds, which took in wide and broad holdings all along England and Scotland's eeastern shoreline). The Vikings spoke Old Norse, a tongue kindred to Old English in that both sprung from the same forbearing old Teutonish tongue. It is often so, that the nearby dwelling of speakers of unsame by-leids, such as that which happens at times of mootish unrest, sees the birth of a knitted tongue, and one belief holds that this kind of leidish coming together of Old Norse and Old English helped the speeding-up of the falling off of stavecraft endings in Old English. Seemingly this belief stands firm, as the shedding of many of the tongues’ name and forname word endings happened firstly in the North, and then much later in the Southwest, the landship farthest away from Viking sway. Looking beyond the truth or otherwise of this belief, Old Norse's sway on the English tongue has been deep and ongoing: giving such everyday words as sky, leg and the for-nameword they, amongst hundreds more.

Celtish swayEdit

It has long been held that the Celtish tongue's sway on English has been small, setting out the small number loanwords celtish found in the tongue. And it is true that Celtish loanwords seem to number far less in number than those from either Latin or Old Norse.

Since the 1980s years, a growing number of writers, amongst them Hildegard Tristan, have strongly held the belief that the bearing that the Celtish tongue has had upon English has been underplayed. Latterly Celtic beginnings have been put forth for more and more English byleid words. Tristan, Theo Venneman and others have put forth the belief that one can clearly see Celtish hallmarks in English wordsetting in the early times of Middle English.


To further inravel things, Old English had many byleids. The four main byleidish Old English tongues were Mercish, Northumbrish (known togetherly as Anglish), Kentish and West Saxonish. Each of these by-leids was tied closely to a stand- alone kingdom on the iland. Of these, and all of Northumbria and most of Mercia were overrun by the Vikings throughout the C9th. The steads of Mercia and all of Kent not overrun by the Vikings became welded with Wessex.

After the welding of these unsame Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in 878AJ by Alfred the Great, there is a marked falling away of other by-leids, This is not to say that they stopped being spoken; they are being spoken even to this day, as witnessed by the being of middle English byleids; and the now [[English By-leids]] later on, and in that a folk do not readily turn to other speech ways and sounds when there is only a sudden shift of mootish might.

However, most deeds we have today from Anglo-Saxon times are written in the Wessex by-leid, Alfred’s kingdom. It seems likely that with the bringing together of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms into one, there was a need for the taking up of one tongue to lesser the awkwardness of having sway over folks living in the outlying steads of the kingdom. The outcome was that folk-steering deeds were written in the West Saxon by-leid. Not only this, but Alfred felt deeply about the bearing and spread of his mother tongue and brought many writers to his kingdom from Mercia so that much, that things not then yet put into writing, could be done so. Likewise this turned out well for the Church, moreso since Alfred took steps to overbring in English holy books and deeds. And so as to keep his backing and, for the widest spread of overbrought works, the monks and churchmen working for Alfred always followed the step of writing in his tongue. Alfred himself seems to have overbrought from Latin into English many Church works, one such being the well known work, “Care of Souls” written by the then Head of the Romish Church, Gregory, the First.

After the coming together of Anglish-Saxon might under Alfred’s leadership. along with the on-going threat of Viking inslaughts, there is little to show in writing of any further growth of by-leids other than the West Saxonish tongue.


Writings in Old English, though more in number than those in the tongues of the Europish mainland before AJ 1000 are nonetheless still very small. In his add-on writ to the 1935 after-death number of Bright’s Anglo-Saxon Reader, Dr James Hulbert writes:

"In such times a great number of the writings of the Anglo-Saxons were lost. Whatever they held, how weighty they were for gaining an understanding of the writings before the inslaught of the Normans, we have no way of knowing; the few deeds and lists found in minsters do not help us, and there is nothing shown even in other lasting writings...How wasted away is the body of our writings can be shown by the well known truth that, besides a few of somewhat little standing, all lasting Anglo-Saxon scopery is held in four handwritten works."
Old English was one of the first home tongues to be written down. Some of the writings lasting from Old English times and still having great worth are Beowulf, a saga-like leeth; the Anglo-Saxon Tale, a writing down of early English yore, and Caedmon’s church-song. There are also a number of lasting writings, such as speeches by Churchmens, tales about the lives of Christendom’s holymen, overbringings from the Bible, and works by early Church Fathers overbrought from Latin, law deeds, such as wills and laws, and handy works on stavecraft, healcraft, and worldlore. Still scopery is thought to be the heart of Old English writings. Although nearly all Anglo-Saxon writers are nameless, foremostly among those named are Bede and Caedmon.

The last work to be written in the tongue was the English Yearbook. The tongue slowly became what is known as Middle English.

Word FlowEdit

While Old English word flow was often Doerword-Deedword-Nimword, since stavecraftish bentnesses, word flow was not needful. Thanks to the sway of Old Northish, word flow for frains was Deedword-Doerword-Nimword. New English, on the other hand, has a set word flow.


The most widely known work is Beowulf, of which the following is a slice.

First Beowulf:

(1) Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in ġeār-dagum,

(2) þēod-cyninga, þrym ġefrūnon,

(3) hū ðā æþelingas ellen fremedon.


(1) What! We of Spear-Danes in days of yore,

(2) of theed-kings their wulder did fraign,

(3) how those athelmen did upfurthered ellen.

Another show is the Old English oversetting of the Our Father (aka Lord's Bead)

First Old English Our Father:

[1] Fæder ūre þū þe eart on heofonum,

[2] Sī þīn nama ġehālgod.

[3] Tōbecume þīn rīċe,

[4] ġewurþe ðīn willa, on eorðan swā swā on heofonum.

[5] Ūrne ġedæġhwāmlīcan hlāf syle ūs tō dæġ,

[6] and forgyf ūs ūre gyltas, swā swā wē forgyfað ūrum gyltendum.

[7] And ne ġelǣd þū ūs on costnunge, ac ālȳs ūs of yfele.

[8] Sōþlīċe.

New English Oversetting:

[1] Our Father, Thou that art in heaven,

[2] Thy Name be hallowed.

[3] Let Thy rike come,

[4] Bewerthe Thy will, on earth even as in heaven.

[5] Our daily-wanted loaf/bread sell (give) us today,

[6] and forgive us our guilts, even as we have forgiven our guilters.

[7] And do not lead Thou us into costing, but allay us of evil.

[8] Soothly.

Links to leaves about tungs (adight)
Tungs Kin of tungs
Indo-Europish tungs
Theedish tungs North Theedish tungs: Faroish tung - Norish tung - Icelandish (High Icelandish) - Old Norse - Old Gutnish - South Jutish - Danish tung - Swedish tung - Elfdalsh tung (moot) - Norn tung (dead) - Gutnish tung (moot)
West Theedish tungs:
Weser-Rhine Theedish tungs: Old Low Frankish - Netherlandish tung - Highsunlandish tung - Limburgish tung - Zeelandish tung - Flemish tung (moot)
Elbe Theedish tungs: Old High Theech - Theech tung - Allmenish tung - Bairish tung - Wymysorys tung - Lombardish tung (dead) - Littleburgish tung - Hunsridgish tung - Yiddish tung - Ripuarish tung
North Sea Theedish tungs: Saxish (Old Saxish - Middle Low Saxish - Low Saxish tung) | English (Old English tung - Middle English tung - English tung - Anglish (moot) - Lowland Scottish tung - Northumberish tung (moot) - Yola) | Freesish (Old Freesish tung - Western Freesish - Northern Freesish - Saterland Freesish)

East Theedish tungs (dead): Gottish tung - Wendish tung - Burgundish tung

Celtish tungs Mainland Celtish tungs (dead): Celtiberish tung - Cisalpine Gaulish tung - Galatish tung - Gallaecish tung - Gaulish tung - Lepontish tung - East Celtish tung - Iberi-Celtish tungs
Gelish tungs: Irish tung - Scots Gelish tung - Manx tung - Galloway Gelish (dead)
Brythonish tungs: Cornish tung - Welsh tung - Wonted Brythonish tung (dead) - Cumbrish tung (dead) - Breton tung - Ivernish tung (dead)
Other: Pictish tung (dead) - Shelta - Beurla Reagaird(craftspeech)
Balt-Slavish tungs Slavish tungs:
East Slavish tungs: Russish tung - Borderish tung - White Russish tung
West Slavish tungs: Slesish tung - Polish tung - Bohemish tung (a.k.a Checklandish Tung) - Slovakish tung - Kashubish tung
South Slavish tungs: Serb-Croatish (Serbish tung - Blackbarrowish tung - Bosnish tung - Croatish tung) - Bulgarish tung - Macedonish tung - Slovenish tung

Baltish tungs: Lithuish tung - Lettish tung - Old Prussish (dead) - Kurish
Italish tungs Sabellish tungs (dead): Oscish tung - Old Venetish - Umbrish tung

Latish-Faliscish tungs (dead):
Latish (Folklatish) - Faliscish tung
Romanish tungs: Italish-Western tungs:
Italish-Damatalish: Damatalish tung (dead) - Istriotish tung - Tuscish tung - Venetish tung - Corsicish tung - Sassarish tung - Sicilish tung - Neapolish tung - Italish tung
Western-Romenish tungs: Gaulish-Romanish (Old French tung - Middle French tung - French tung - Picardish tung - Wallonish tung - Normandish tung (Angle-Normandish) - Burgundish tung (Romanish) - Arpitish tung - Savoyardish tung - Gallosk tung - Romansh tung - Occitsh tung - Catalandish tung - Piedmontish tung - Ligurish tung - Lombardish tung (Romanish)) | Iberish (Spanish tung - Aragonish tung - Galicish tung - Leonish tung - Jewish Spanish (Ladino) - Mirandish tung - Falash tung - Portugalish tung - Mozarabish tung (dead) - Sephardish tung)
Eastern-Romanish tungs: Romeenish tung - Arromeenish tung - Sardinish tung

Greekish tungs Greekish tung - Grikosh Tung - Tsakonish tung - Pontish tung - Yevanish tung - Cappadocish Greekish - Calabrish tung
Tocharish tungs (dead) Turfanish tung - Kucheish tung - Kröanish
Anatolish tungs (dead) Hittish - Lydiash - Luish - Lycish - Palaish
Indo-Iranish tungs Indo-Aryish: (Hindlandish offshoots: Hindish tung - Urdu tung) - Bengalish tung - Roma tung - Punjabish tung

Iranish: Balochish tung - Pashto tung - Persish tung - Kurdish tung

Other Indo-Europish Albanish tung - Armenish tung - Dacish tung (dead) - Illyrish tungs (dead) - Old Ligurish tung (dead) - Phrygish tung (dead) - Thracish tung (dead)
Other tungs:
Semitish tungs Amharish tung - Arabish tung - Aramaish tung - Hebrew tung - Akkadish tung (dead) - Assyrish tung
Ulgarish tungs Estish tung - Finnish tung - Ungarish tung - Sami tungs - Livonish tung
Turkish tungs Oghuz: Mickleyard Turkish tung - Azerish tung - Turkmen tung - Urum tung - Gagauz tung - Qashqai tung - Khorasani tung - Salar tung

Karluk: Uzbek tung - Uyghur tung - Ili Turki tung - Chagatai tung (dead) - Karakhanid tung (dead)

Khalaj: Khalaj tung

Oghur: Chuvash tung - Turkish Bulgar tung (dead) - Khazar tung? (dead) - Hunnic tung? (dead) - Avar tung? (dead)

Siberish: Sakha tung - Tuvish tung - Altai tung - Dolgan tung - Tofa tung - Khakas tung - Fuyu Kyrgyz - Shor tung - Western Yugur tung - Chulym tung

Kipchak: Kazakh tung - Kyrgyz tung - Tatar tung - Krimlandish Tatar tung - Bashkir tung - Karachay-Balkar tung - Kumyk tung - Karaim tung - Krymchak tung - Urum tung - Cuman tung (dead) - Karakalpak tung - Siberish Tatar tung - Nogai tung - Fergana Kipchak tung

Japonish tungs Japanish tung - Ryukyu tungs (moot)
Mongolish tungs Khalkha tung - Buryat tung - Oirat tung - Moghol tung - Dagur tung - Ordos tung
Southialandish tungs Philippine: Philipslandish tung - Yami tung - Ivatan tung - Ilocano tung - Ibanag tung - Gaddang tung - Pangasinan tung - Kapampangan tung - Sidefolkish tung - Waray tung - Hiligaynon tung - Asi tung - Romblomanon tung - Onhan tung - Kinaray-a tung - Aklanon tung - Cebuano tung - Tausug tung - Maranao tung - Tboli tung - Tombulu tung - Sangirish tung - Gorontalo tung - Mongondow tung

Malayish: Malay tung - Indonesish tung - Menterap tung - Iban tung - Remun tung - Mualang tung - Seberuang tung - Sebuyau tung - Kendayan tung - Keninjal tung - Bamayo tung - Urak Lawoi tung - Minangkabau tung - Banjarish tung - Betawi tung

Polynesish: Tongish tung - Niuafoou tung - Niuish tung - Wallisish tung - Futunish tung - Pukapukish tung - Rennellish tung - Tikopish tung - West Uveish - Futuna-Aniwa tung - Mele-Fila tung - Emae tung - Anuta tung - Samoish tung - Tokelauish tung - Tuvaluish tung - Nukuoro tung - Kapingamarangi tung - Nukurish tung (dead?) - Takuu tung - Nukumanu tung - Ontong Java tung - Sikaiana tung - Vaeakau-Taumako tung - Rapa Nuish tung - Marquesish tung - Mangareva tung - Firelandish tung - Tahitish tung - Austral tung - Rapa tung - Taumotuish tung - Rarotongish tung - Rakahanga-Manihiki tung - Penrhyn tung - Maorish tung - Moriori tung (dead)

Sinitish-Tibetish tungs Sinitish: Chinish tung

Tibetish-Burmish: Burmish tung - Tibetish tung - Dzongkha tung - Gongduk tung - Lhokpu tung - Olekha tung - Lepcha tung - Sharchop tung - Pyu tung (dead) - Meitei tung - Karbi tung - Tujia tung - Puroik tung

Niger-Congo tungs Swahilish tung - Wolof tung - Yorubish tung - Igbo tung - Xhosa tung - Zulu tung
Koreish tungs Koreish tung - Jeju tung (moot)
Kra-Dai tungs Thai tung - Lao tung - Ahom tung (dead)
Southasiatish tungs Vietnamish tung - Khmer tung
Forbinded Tungs Papiamento tung - Loudwyeland French - Haitish French
Lone tungs Baskish tung - Ainu tung
Other Cherokee tung - Coptish tung - Canaman Folktung - Esperantish tung (crafted) - Etruscish tung (dead) - Folkspraak tung (crafted) - Greenlandish tung - Georgeish tung - Klingon (crafted) - Laadanish tung (crafted) - Lakotish tung - Toki Pona Tung (crafted) - Volapuk (crafted)
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