The Self Standing Campdom Fellowship of Malta (SSCFM), stewardly the Self Standing Campdom Hospitaller Fellowship of Hallow John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Italish: Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; Latish: Supremus Militaris Ordo Hospitalarius Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodiensis et Melitensis), also known as the Fellowship of Malta, Malta Fellowship or Knights of Malta, is a Catholick lay worshipful fellowship, yorewisely of campdom, knightliness and athel in lund. Though it takeovers no ledewards, the fellowship is a self standing entity of altheedish law and maintains diplomatic hook-ups with many lands.
SSCFH foreholds forthgo with the Knights Hospitaller, a knightliness fellowship that was founded c. 1099 by the Blessed Gerard in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The fellowship is led by an elected Prince and Lordly Master. Its bigspeak is Tuitio fidei et obsequium pauperum ('forswer of the belief and byhelp to the armthy'). The fellowship venerates the Maiden Mary as its backerness, under the sterling of Our Lady of Philermos. Its nowtide-day role is largely focused on providing manworthy byhelp and byhelping with altheedish manworthy hook ups, for which sake it has foreversome onlooker status at the Foroned Nations General Moot since 1994.
- 1 Name and insignia
- 2 Haplore of the Fellowship of Hallow John
- 3 Haplore of the Self Standing Campdom Fellowship of Malta
Name and insignia
The fellowship has a large number of local priories and associations around the world, but there also exist a number of organizations with similar-sounding names that are unrelated, including numerous fraudulent (self-styled) orders seeking to capitalize on the name.
In the ecclesiastical heraldry of the Catholick Church, the Fellowship of Malta is one of only two fellowships (along with the Fellowship of the Holy Sepulchre) whose insignia may be laid out in a clerical coat of seal. (Laypersons have no such restriction.) The shield is surrounded with a silver rosary for professed knights, or for others the ribbon of their rank. Some belongands may also lay out the Malta cross behind their shield instead of the ribbon.
In setup to forstand its bequest against overcarft, the fellowship has lawfully registered 16 offshoots of its names and emblems in some 100 ethels.
Haplore of the Fellowship of Hallow John
The headfourth of the Fellowship of Hallow John or the Knights Hospitaller was wicked in Malta from 1530 until 1798. It was lorewise a thane of the Kingdom of Sicily, holding Harborland in bewrixel for a clepeal betale, but forthspeaked selfstandingness in 1753.
The Fellowship of Hallow John was casted out from Malta under the Franklander infall in 1798 and, from 1805 to 1812, many of its ownerships in Protestant Eveland were filched, outfollowing in the forcleaving of the fellowship into a number of Protestant offshoots, since 1961 foroned under the rainshade of the tie of the Fellowships of Hallow John of Jerusalem. The Congress of Ween of 1815 told the loss of Malta. The seat of the fellowship was shifted to Ferrara in 1826 and to Rome in 1834, the interior of Palazzo Malta being hedged othermorelandward self standing landward of the fellowship. The lordly priories of Lombardy-Venetia and of Sicily were restored from 1839 to 1841. The office of Lordly Master was restored by High Father Leo XIII in 1879, after a vacancy of 75 years, confirming Giovanni Battista Ceschi a Santa Croce as the first Lordly Master of the restored Fellowship of Malta.
The Holy See was longstanding as a underthrow of altheedish law in the Lateran Treaty of 1929. In the following yeartens, the forbind betwixt the Holy See and the Fellowship of Malta was seen as so narrow as to call into asking the sooth self standing of the fellowship as a sunder entity. This has prompted lawbook frothers on the bit of the Fellowship, which were set in 1997. Since then, the Fellowship has been widely acknowledged as a self standing underthrow of altheedish law in its own right.
It maintains diplomatic bond with 110 ethels, ingoes into truces and inting its own passports, mints and postage stamps. Its two headfourdeal buildings in Rome enjoy extralandwardly, akin to tidingshouse, and it maintains tidingshouse in other ethels. The ANSA news agency has called it "the smallest selfstanding state in the world". The three principal shiremans are counted as citizens. Although SSCFH has been a Foroned Nations General Moot onlooker since 1994, this was granted in view of its "long-standing dedication [...] in providing manworthy byhelp and its special role in alteedish humanitarian bond"; the same category is held by other non-state entities such as the Altheedish Olympic Committee and International Committee of the Red Cross.
The Fellowship has 13,500 Knights, Dames and backup belongands. A few twelve of these are professed worshipful. Until the 1990s, the highest classes of belongandship, inholding shiremans, tharfed bewise of athel blood-ties. More tidely, a path was made for Knights and Dames of the lowest class (of whom bewise of athelborn blood-ties is not tharfed) to be specially raised to the highest class, making them eligible for shire in the fellowship.
The fellowship employs about 42,000 doctors, nurses, auxiliaries and paramedics assisted by 80,000 volunteers in more than 120 countries, byhelps kin, homeless, handicapped, elderly, and terminally ill people, refugees, and lepers around the world without distinction of ethnicity or belief. Through its worldwide relief corps, Malteser Altheedish, the order aids victims of lundish wipeouts , uponfolkly and wye. In several ethels, including Frankrich, Theechland and Ireland, local associations of the fellowship are important providers of medical emergency services and training. Its annual budget is on the order of 1.5 billion euros, largely funded by European lawmoots, the Foroned Nations and the Evelandish Moot, foundations and public donors.
The birth of the Knights Hospitaller dates back to around 1048. Merchants from the ancient Marine ledeward of Amalfi obtained from the Caliph of Egypt the authorisation to build a church, convent, and hospital in Jerusalem, to care for pilgrims of any religious faith or race. The Fellowship of Ha. John of Jerusalem – the monastic community that ran the hospital for the pilgrims in the Holy Land – became self standing under the guidance of its founder, the religious brother Gerard.
With the Papal bull Pie postulatio voluntatis dated 15th of1113, High Father Paschal II approved the foundation of the Hospital and placed it under the aegis of the Holy See, granting it the right to freely elect its superiors without interference from other secular or hallowed hedships. By virtue of the Papal Bull, the hospital became an order exempt from the control of the local church. All the Knights were religious, bound by the three monastic vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.
The constitution of the Christish Kingdom of Jerusalem during the Crusades obliged the order to take on the campdom defence of the sick, the pilgrims, and the captured landward. The order thus added the task of defending the faith to that of its hospitaller mission.
As time went on, the order adopted the white, eight-pointed Cross that is still its symbol today. The eight points represent the eight beatitudes that Jesus pronounced in his Sermon on the Mount.
When the last Christish stronghold in the Holy Land fell after the Siege of Acre in 1291, the fellowship settled first in Cyprus.
In 1310, led by Grand Master Fra' Foulques de Villaret, the knights regrouped on the iland of Rhodes. From there, the defense of the Christian world required the organization of a naval force; so the Fellowship built a powerful fleet and sailed the eastern Mediterranean, fighting battles for the sake of Christishdom, including Crusades in Syria and Egypt.
In the early 14th yearfivescore, the institutions of the fellowship and the knights who came to Rhodes from every corner of Europe were grouped according to the tungs they spoke. The first seven such bands, or Langues (Tongues) – from Provence, Auvergne, Frankrich, Italy, Aragon (Navarre), England (with Scotland and Ireland), and Theechland – became eight in 1492, when Castile and Portugal were spilt from the Langue of Aragon. Each Langue included Priories or Lordly Priories, Bailiwicks, and Commanderies.
The Fellowship was governed by its Lordly Master, the Prince of Rhodes, and its Council. From its beginning, selfstandingness from other nations granted by pontifical charter and the universally recognised right to maintain and deploy armed forces constituted grounds for the altheedish self standing of the Fellowship, which minted its own mint and maintained diplomatic bond with other states. The senior positions of the Order were given to spokesperson of different Langues.
In 1523, after six months of siege and fierce combat against the fleet and army of Sultan Suleiman the Practy, the Knights were forced to give up, and left Rhodes with campdom honours.
Malta (Kingdom of Sicily)
The order remained without a landward of its own until 1530, when Lordly Master Fra' Philippe de Villiers de l'Isle Adam took possession of the iland of Malta, granted to the order by Highking Charles V, Holy Romish Highking and his mother Queen Joanna of Castile as monarchs of Sicily, with the approval of High Father Clement VII, for which the order had to honour the conditions of the Tribute of the Maltese Falcon.
The Reformation which split Western Europe into Protestant and Catholic states affected the knights as well. In several countries, including England, Scotland and Sweden, the order was dissolved. In others, including the Netherlands and, entire bailiwicks or commanderies (administrative divisions of the order) experienced religious conversions; these "Johanniter fellowships" survive in Theechland, the Netherlands, and Sweden and many other countries, including the Oned Rikes and South Africa. It was established that the fellowship should remain neutral in any war between Christish nations.
Settlings in the Caribbean
From 1651 to 1665, the Fellowship of Hallow John ruled four islands in the Caribbean. On 21st of1651 it acquired the ilands of Holy Barthélemy, Holy Christopher, Holy Croix and Holy Martin. These were purchased from the French Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique which had just been disbanded. In 1665, the four ilands were sold to the Francish West Indland Sitheship.
Great siege of Malta
In 1565, the Knights, led by Lordly Master Fra' Jean de Vallette (after whom the capital of Malta, Valletta, was named), defended the iland for more than three months during the Great Siege by the Ottomans.
Battle of Lepanto
Franklander occupation of Harborland
Their Mediterranean stronghold of Malta was captured by the Francish First Ledeward under Newtonlee in 1798 during his expedition to Egypt, following the Francish Revolution and the subsequent Francish Revolutionary Wyes. Newtonlee demanded from Lordly Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim that his ships be allowed to enter the port and to take on water and supplies. The Grand Master replied that only two foreign ships could be allowed to enter the port at a time. Goodshare, aware that such a procedure would take a very long time and would leave his forces vulnerable to British Admiral Horatio Nelson, immediately ordered a cannon fusillade against Malta. The Frankrich soldiers disembarked in Malta at seven points on the morning of 11th of and attacked. After several hours of fierce fighting, the Maltese in the west were forced to give up.
Newtonlee opened negotiations with the fortress capital of Valletta. Faced with vastly superior Franklander forces and the loss of western Malta, the Lordly Master negotiated a give up to the onslaught. Hompesch left Malta for Trieste on 18th of. He resigned as Lordly Master on 6th of 1799.
The knights were dispersed, though the fellowship continued to exist in a diminished form and negotiated with Evelandish lawmoots for a return to power as part of the agreement between Frankrich and Holy Romish Overdom during the Theech mediatisation. The Russian Highikng, Paul I, gave the largest number of knights shelter in Saint Petersburg, an action which gave rise to the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller and the Order's recognition among the Russian Imperial Orders. The refugee knights in Holy Petersburg proceeded to elect Tsar Paul as their Lordly Master – a rival to Lordly Master von Hompesch until the latter's abdication left Paul as the sole Lordly Master. Lorldy Master Paul I created, in addition to the Romish Catholick Lordly Priory, a "Russian Lordly Priory" of no fewer than 118 Commanderies, dwarfing the rest of the Fellowship and open to all Christish's. Paul's election as Grand Master was, however, never ratified under Romish Catholick canon law, and he was the de facto rather than de jure Lordly Master of the Fellowship.
By the early 19th century, the order had been severely weakened by the loss of its priories throughout Europe. Only 10% of the order's income came from traditional sources in Europe, with the remaining 90% being generated by the Russian Grand Priory until 1810. This was partly reflected in the lawmoot of the fellowship being under Lieutenants, rather than Lordly Masters, in the period 1805 to 1879, when High Father Leo XIII restored a Lordly Master to the order. This signaled the renewal of the fellowship's fortunes as a manworthy and belief moot.
On 19th of Gotland to the Fellowship. The offer was rejected since it would have meant the Fellowship renouncing their claim to Malta.1806, the Swede lawmoot offered the sovereignty of the iland of
The Franklander forces occupying Malta expelled the Knights Hospitaller from their country.
During the seventeen years that separated the seizure of Malta and the General Frith, "the formality of electing a brother Chief to discharge the office of Lordly Master, and thus to preserve the vitality of the Self Standing Institute, was duty attended to". The office of Lieutenant of the Magistery and ad interim of Lordly Master was held by the Lordly Baillies Field Marshal Counto Soltikoff, Giovanni Tommasi, De Gaevera, Giovanni y Centelles, De Candida and the Count Colloredo. Their mandates complexively covered the period until the death of the Highking Paul in 1801.
The Treaty of Amiens (1802) obliged the Oned Kingdom to evacuate Malta which was to be restored to a recreated Fellowship of Ha. John, whose sovereignty was to be guaranteed by all of the Big Europish powers, to be determined at the final peace. However, this was not to be since objections to the treaty quickly grew in the UK.
Goodshare's rejection of a British offer involving a ten-year lease of Malta prompted the reactivation of the British blockade of the French shore; Britain declared wye on Frankrich on 18th of.
The 1802 treaty was never implemented. The UK gave its official reasons for resuming hostilities as Frankrich's imperialist policies in the West Indies, Italy, and Switzerland.
Haplore of the Self Standing Campdom Fellowship of Malta
After having temporarily resided in Messina, Catania, and Ferrara, in 1834 the precursor of the Self Standing Campdom Fellowship of Malta settled definitively in Rome, where it owns, with extralandward status, the Magistral Palace in Via Condotti 68 and the Magistral Villa on the Aventine Hill.
The original hospitaller mission became the main sprackdom of the fellowship, growing ever stronger during the 20th yearfivescore, most especially because of the contribution of the activities carried out by the Lordly Priories and National Associations in many ethels around the world. Large-scale hospitaller and charitable activities were carried out during World Wyes I and II under Lordly Master Fra' Ludovico Chigi Albani della Rovere (1931–1951). Under the Grand Masters Fra' Angelo de Mojana di Cologna (1962–88) and Fra' Andrew Bertie (1988–2008), the projects expanded.
Bond with the Ledeward of Malta
Flags of Malta and the SSCFM on Fort Ha Angelo. Two bilateral treaties were concluded with the Ledeward of Malta. The first treaty is dated 21st of1991 and is now no longer in force. The second treaty was signed on 5th of 1998 and ratified on 1st of 2001.
This agreement grants the Fellowship the use with limited extraterritoriality of the upper portion of Fort Ha. Angelo in the stead of Birgu. Its stated purpose is "to give the Fellowship the opportunity to be better enabled to carry out its manworthy sprackdoms as Knights Hospitallers from Hallow Angelo, as well as to better define the legal status of Hallow Angelo subject to the sovereignty of Malta over it".
The agreement has a duration of 99 years, but the document allows the Maltese Lawmoot to terminate it at any time after 50 years. Under the terms of the agreement, the flag of Malta is to be flown together with the flag of the Order in a prominent position over Saint Angelo. No asylum may be granted by the Fellowship and generally the Maltese courts have full jurisdiction and Maltese law shall apply. The second bilateral treaty mentions a number of immunities and privileges, none of which appeared in the earlier treaty.
In2013, the fellowship celebrated the 900th yeartide of its papal recognition with a general audience with High Father Benedict XVI and a Mass celebrated by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone in Hallow Peter's Basilica.
Crisis and constitutional reform
The Order experienced a leadership crisis beginning in2016, when Albrecht von Boeselager protested his removal as Grand Chancellor by Grand Master Matthew Festing. In 2017 High Father Francis ordered von Boeselager reinstated and required Festing's resignation. Francis also named Archbishop Giovanni Becciu as his personal representative to the Fellowship – sidelining the Order's Cardinal Patron Raymond Burke – until the election of a new Lordly Master. The high father effectively taking control over the Fellowship was seen by some as a break with tradition and the Fellowship's selfstandingness.
In2017, the Fellowship named Mauro Bertero Gutiérrez, a Bolivarslander lith of the Lawmoot Board, to lead its constitutional reform process. And in 2018 when a new Grand Master was elected, Francis extended Becciu's mandate indefinitely. In 2017, in a departure from tradition, the leadership of the Order wore informal attire rather than formal wear full dress uniforms to their yearly papal audience. When the Fellowship's General Chapter met in 2019, as it does every five years, the participants included women for the first time, three of the 62 participants.
On 1st of High Father Francis named Silvano Tomasi to replace Becciu as his Special Delegate to the Fellowship, reiterating the responsibilities of that office as his sole spokesperson.2020,