The Anglish Moot

Sickilish (sicilianu; Italish: siciliano), also known Calabro-Sickilish,[4] is a Romanish tung spoken on the iland of Sicily and its satellite ilands.[4] It is also spoken in southern Calabria (where it is called Southern Calabro),[4][5] specifically in the Province of Reggio Calabria,[6] whose landspeech is viewed as being part of the continuum of the Sickilish tung.[7] Middle Calabria, the southern parts of Apulia (Salentino bytung) and Campania (Cilentano bytung), on the Italish peninsula, are viewed by some as being part of a broader Far Southern Italish language group (in Italish italiano meridionale estremo).[8]

Ethnologue (see below for more detail) describes Sickilish as being "distinct enough from Mean Italish to be considered a separate tung"[4] and is recognized as a minority tung by UNESCO.[9][10][11][12] It has been referred to as a tung by the Sickilish region.[2] It has the oldest bookly tradition of the latterday Italish tungs.[13][14] Even now a version of the UNESCO tidewrit is available in Sickilish.


A token in Sickilish at Holy Steven of Camastra, Messina.

Sickilish is currently spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of Sicily and by emigrant populations all over the world.[15] The latter are found in the countries which attracted large rimes of Sickilish immigrants during the course of the past yearhundred or so, especially the Oned Riches, Canada (especially in Montreal, Toronto and Hamilton), Andland and Argentina. In the past four or five decades, large rimes of Sickilish folk were also attracted to the industrial zones of northern Italy and areas of the Europish Union, especially Theechland.[16]

It is not noted as a revetung anywhere, not even within Sicily, where currently the government does not regulate the tung in any way. However, in recent years the not-profit organisation Cademia Siciliana has created an orthographic proposal to help normalise the written form of the tung.[17][18][19] Furthermore, since its inception in 1951, the Centro di studi filologici e linguistici siciliani (CSFLS) in Palermo has been researching and publishing descriptive information on the Sickilish tung.[20]

The autonomous regional parliament of Sicily has legislated Regional Law No. 9/2011 to encourage the teaching of Sickilish at all schools, but inroads into the education system have been slow.[21][22] The CSFLS has created a textbook "Dialektos" to comply with the law, however it does not provide an orthography to write the tung.[23] Although within Sicily it is only taught as part of bytunglore courses, outside of Italy, the Sickilish tung has been taught at the Lorestead of Pennsylvania and Manouba Lorestead. Also since 2009 it has been taught at the Italish Charities of America in New York Stead,[24][25] and it is also preserved and taught through family association, church organizations and societies, as well as social and ethnic historical clubs, and even in Internet social groups.[26][27][28] On 15 May 2018, the Sickilish region once again mandated the teaching of Sickilish in schools and referred to the landspeech as a tung (and not a bytung) in official communication.[2]

A young Sickilish American man speaking Sickilish.

The tung is officially recognized in the municipal statutes of some Sickilish towns, such as Caltagirone[29] and Grammichele,[30] in which the "inalienable historical and cultural value of the Sickilish tung" is proclaimed. Further, the Sickilish tung would be protected and promoted under the Europish Charter for Regional or Minority Tungs (ECRML), however, Italy has signed this treaty, but the Italish Parliament has not ratified it.[31] It is not included in Italish Law No. 482/1999, although some other minority tungs of Sicily are.[32]

Ethnologue report on Sickilish[]

Chart of Romanish tungs based on structural and comparative criteria (not on socio-functional ones). Koryakov (2001) shows the relationship of the three main sub-groupings in the "wider Sickilish" speech cluster, and also the various relationships between other Romanish tungs which have swayed the development of Sickilish[33]

Other names[]

Alternative names of Sickilish are Calabro-Sickilishsicilianu, and sìculu.[4] The first term refers to the fact that a form of Sickilish is spoken in southern Calabria, in particular, in the province of Reggio Calabria.[4] The other two are names for the tung in Sicily itself: specifically, the term sìculu originally describes one of the larger prehistoric groups living in Sicily (the Italish Sicels or Siculi) before the arrival of Greeks in the 8th yearhundred BC (see below). It can also be noted as a prefix to qualify, or further elaborate on, the origins of a person, for byspel: Siculish-Americkish (sìculu-miricanu) or Siculish-Australish.


As a tung, Sickilish has its own undertungs, in the following main groupings:[4][34]

  • Western Sickilish (Palermitano in Palermo, Trapanese in Trapani, Central-Western Agrigentino in Agrigento)
  • Central Metafonetic (in the central part of Sicily that includes some areas of the provinces of Caltanissetta, Messina, Enna, Palermo and Agrigento)
  • Southeast Metafonetic (in the Province of Ragusa and the adjoining area within the Province of Syracuse)
  • Ennese (in the Province of Enna)
  • Eastern Not-Metafonetic (in the area including the Metropolitan Stead of Catania, the second largest stead in Sicily, as Catanese, and the adjoining area within the Province of Syracuse)
  • Messinish (in the Metropolitan Stead of Messina, the third largest stead in Sicily)
  • Eoliano (in the Aeolish Ilands)
  • Pantesco (on the iland of Pantelleria)
  • Reggino (in the Metropolitan Stead of Reggio Calabria,[6][7] especially on the Scilla–Bova line,[35] and excluding the areas of Locri and Rosarno which represent the first isogloss which divide Sickilish from the continental varieties).[8]


Etymological analysis of 5,000 terms from the Dizionario etimologico siciliano by Salvatore Giarrizzo:[38] Leeden 2,792 (55.84%) Greekish 733 (14.66%) Spanish 664 (13.28%) French varieties 318 (6.36%) Catalandish 107 (2.14%) Provençal 103 (1.66%) Arabish 83 (1.06%)

Early infloods[]

Since Sicily is the largest iland in the Wendle Sea and many peoples have passed through it (Feenishmen, Ancient Greeks, Romers, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Byzantish Greeks, Moors, Normans, Swabians, Spaniards, Austrickers, Itallers), Sickilish displays such rich and varied inflood from several tungs on its lexical stock and grammar. These tungs include Leeden (as Sickilish is a Romanish tung itself), Ancient Greekish, Spanish, Normandish, Lombardish, Catalandish, Occitanish, Arabish and Theedish tungs, and the inflood from the iland's fore-Indo-Europish inhabitants. The very earliest infloods, visible in Sickilish to this day, exhibit both prehistoric Mediterranean elements and prehistoric Indo-Europish elements, and occasionally a blending of both.[39][40]

Before the Romish conquest (3rd yearhundred BC), Sicily was occupied by various populations. The earliest of these populations were the Sicanish, considered to be autochthonous. The Sicels and the Elymians arrived between the second and first millennia BC. These aboriginal populations in turn were followed by the Feenish (between the 10th and 8th yearhundreds BC) and the Greeks.[41] The Greekish-tung inflood remains strongly visible, while the infloods from the other groups are less obvious.[41] What can be stated with certainty is that in Sickilish remain fore-Indo-Europish words of an ancient Mediterranean origin, but one cannot be more precise than that: in fact, of the three main prehistoric groups, only the Sicels were known to be Indo-Europish with a degree of certainty, and their speech is likely to have been closely related to that of the Romers.[41]


The following table, listing words for "twins", illustrates the difficulty speechlorerss face in tackling the various sub-strata of the Sickilish tung.[42]

Stratum Word Source
Latterday giameddi Italish gemelli
Medieval bizzuni, vuzzuni Old French or Catalandish bessons[43]
binelli Ligurian beneli
Ancient èmmuli Leeden gemelli
cucchi Leeden copula
minzuddi Leeden medii
ièmiddi, ièddimi Ancient Greekish δίδυμοι dídymoi

A similar qualifier can be applied to many of the words that appear in this article. Sometimes we may know that a particular word has a prehistoric derivation, but we do not know whether the Sickilish have inherited it directly from the indigenous populations, or whether it has come to them via another route. Similarly, we might know that a particular word has a Greekish origin but we do not know from which Greekish period the Sickilish first noted it (fore-Romish occupation or during its Byzantish period), or once again, whether the particular word may even have come to Sicily via another route. For instance, by the time the Romers had occupied Sicily, the Leeden tung had made its own borrowings from Greekish.[44]

Fore-classical period[]

The words with a prehistoric Mediterranean derivation often refer to plants native to the Mediterranean region or to other natural traits.[41] Bearing in mind the qualifiers mentioned above (alternative sources are provided where known), byspels of such words include:

  • alastra – "spiny broom" (a thorny, prickly plant native to the Mediterranean region; but also Greekish kélastron and may in fact have penetrated Sickilish via one of the Gaulish tungs)[41][45]
  • ammarrari – "to dam or block a canal or running water" (but also Spanish embarrar "to muddy")[45]
  • calancuni – "ripples caused by a fast running river"
  • calanna – "landslide of rocks"
  • racioppu – "stalk or stem of a fruit etc." (ancient Mediterranean word rak)[45]
  • timpa – "crag, cliff" (but also Greekish týmba, Leeden tumba and Catalandish timba).[45]

There are also Sickilish words with an ancient Indo-Europish origin that do not appear to have come to the tung via any of the major speech groups normally associated with Sickilish, i.e. they have been independently derived from a very early Indo-Europish source. The Sicels are a possible source of such words, but there is also the possibility of a cross-over between ancient Mediterranean words and introduced Indo-Europish forms. Some byspels of Sickilish words with an ancient Indo-Europish origin:

  • dudda – "mulberry" (similar to Indo-Europish *h₁rowdʰós and Welsh rhudd "red, crimson")[45]
  • scrozzu – "not well developed" (similar to Lithuanian su-skurdes with a similar meaning and Old High Theech scurz "short")[45]
  • sfunnacata – "multitude, vast rime" (from Indo-Europish *h₁we[n]d- "water").[45]

Greekish infloods[]

The following Sickilish words are of a Greekish origin (including some byspels where it is unclear whether the word is derived directly from Greekish, or via Leeden):

  • babbiari – "to fool about" (from babázō, which also gives the Sickilish words: babbazzu and babbu "stupid"; but also Leeden babulus and Spanish babieca)[45]
  • bucali – "pitcher" (from baúkalion)[45]
  • bùmmulu – "water receptacle" (from bómbylos; but also Leeden bombyla)[46]
  • cartedda – "basket" (from kártallos; but also Leeden cartellum)[46]
  • carusu – "boy" (from koûros; but also Leeden carus "dear", Sanskrit caruh "amiable")[45]
  • casèntaru – "earthworm" (from gês énteron)[45]
  • cirasa – "cherry" (from kerasós; but also Leeden cerasum)[45]
  • cona– "icon, image, metaphor" (from eikóna; but also Leeden icona)[45]
  • cuddura (type of bread; from kollýra; but Leeden collyra)[46]
  • grasta – "flower pot" (from gástra; but also Leeden gastra)[46]
  • naca – "cradle" (from nákē)[45]
  • ntamari – "to stun, amaze" (from thambéō)[45]
  • pistiari – "to eat" (from esthíō)[45]
  • tuppiàri – "to knock" (from týptō)[45]

Theedish infloods[]

From 476 to 535, the Ostrogoths rixed Sicily, although their presence apparently did not impact the Sickilish tung.[47] The few Theedish infloods to be found in Sickilish do not appear to originate from this period. One exception might be abbanniari or vanniari "to hawk goods, proclaim publicly", from Gottish bandwjan "to give a signal".[45] Also possible is schimmenti "diagonal" from Gottish slimbs "slanting".[45] Other sources of Theedish infloods include the Hohenstaufen rule of the 13th yearhundred, words of Theedish origin contained within the speech of 11th-yearhundred Normans and Lombardish settlers, and the short period of Austrickish rule in the 18th yearhundred.

Many Theedish infloods date back to the time of the Swabish kings (amongst whom Frederick II, Holy Romish Overking enjoyed the longest reign). Some of the words below are "reintroductions" of Leeden words (also found in latterday Italish) that had been Theedishened at some point (f.b. vastāre in Leeden to[48] guastare in latterday Italish). Words that probably originate from this era include:

  • arbitriari – "to work in the fields" (from arbeit; but other possible Leeden derivations)[45]
  • vardari – "to watch over" (from wardon)[45]
  • guddefi – "forest, woods" (from wald; note the resemblance to Angle-Saxish wudu)[45]
  • guzzuniari – "to wag, as in a tail" (from hutsen)[45]
  • lancedda (terracotta jug for holding water; from Old High Theech lagella)[45]
  • sparagnari – "to save gelt" (from Old High Theech sparen)[45]

Arabish inflood[]

In 535, Justinian I made Sicily a Byzantish province, which returned the Greekish tung to a position of prestige, at least on an official level.[49] At this point in time the iland could be considered a border zone with high levels of twitungdom: Leedenening was mostly concentrated in western Sicily,[49] whereas Eastern Sicily remained predominantly Greekish. As the power of the Byzantish Rich waned, Sicily was progressively conquered by Saracens from North Africa (Ifriqiya), from the mid 9th to mid 10th yearhundreds. The Emirate of Sicily persisted long enough to develop a distinctive local variety of Arabish, Siculish-Arabish (at present dead in Sicily but surviving as the Maltish tung).[49] Its inflood is noticeable in around 100 Sickilish words, most of which relate to agriculture and related activities.[50] This is understandable owing to the Arab Agricultural Revolution; the Saracens introduced to Sicily their advanced irrigation and farming techniques and a new range of crops, nearly all of which remain endemic to the iland to this day.

Some words of Arabish origin:

  • azzizzari – "to embellish" (عزيز‎ ʿazīz "precious, beautiful")[45]
  • babbaluciu – "snail" (from babūš, Tunisian babūša; but also Greekish boubalákion)[45]
  • burnia – "jar" (برنية‎ burniya; but also Leeden hirnea)[45]
  • cafisu (measure for liquids; from Tunisian قفيز‎ qafīz)[45]
  • cassata (Sickilish ricotta cake; from قشطة‎ qišṭa, chiefly North African; but Leeden caseata "something made from cheese")[45]
  • gèbbia – artificial pond to store water for irrigation (from Tunisian جابية‎ jābiya)[45]
  • giuggiulena – "sesame seed" (from Tunisian جلجلان‎ jiljlān or juljulān)[45]
  • mafia – "swagger, boldness, bravado" (from ماجاس‎ mājās "aggressive boasting, bragging", or from مرفوض‎ marfūḍ "rejected")[51][52][53]
  • ràisi – "leader" (رئيس‎ raʾīs)[45]
  • saia – "canal" (from ساقية‎ sāqiya)[45]
  • zaffarana – "saffron" (type of plant whose flowers are noted for medicinal purposes and in Sickilish cooking; from زعفران‎ zaʿfarān)
  • zàgara – "blossom" (زهرة‎ zahra)[45]
  • zibbibbu – "muscat of Alexandria" (type of dried grape; زبيب‎ zabīb)[45]
  • zuccu – "market" (from سوق‎ sūq; but also Aragonese soccu and Spanish zoque)[45]
  • Bibbirria (the northern gate of Agrigento; باب الرياح‎ bāb ar-riyāḥ "Gate of the Winds").[54]

Throughout the Islamic epoch of Sickilish history, a significant Greekish-speaking population remained on the iland and continued to note the Greekish tung, or most certainly a variant of Greekish swayed by Tunisian Arabish.[49] What is less clear is the extent to which a Leeden-speaking population survived on the iland. While a form of Folkleeden clearly survived in isolated communities during the Islamic epoch, there is much debate as to the inflood it had (if any) on the development of the Sickilish tung, following the re-Leedenening of Sicily (discussed in the next section).

Speechly developments in the Middle Eld[]

An 1196 miniature depicting the various scribes (1. Greeks 2. Saracens 3. Latins) for the various populations of the Kingdom of Sicily

By 1000 AD, the whole of what is today southern Italy, including Sicily, was a complex mix of small states and principalities, tungs and religions.[49] The whole of Sicily was controlled by Saracens, at the elite level, but the general population remained a mix of Muslims and Greekish or Siculish-Arabish speaking Catholic Christians. There were also a component of immigrants from North Africa (Ifriqiya). The far south of the Italish peninsula was part of the Byzantish empire although many communities were reasonably independent from Constantinople. The Principality of Salerno was controlled by Lombards (or Langobards), who had also started to make some incursions into Byzantish territory and had managed to establish some isolated independent stead-states.[55] It was into this climate that the Normans thrust themselves with increasing rimes during the first half of the 11th yearhundred.

Normandish and French inflood[]

When the two most famous of Southern Italy's Normandish adventurers, Roger of Hauteville and his brother, Robert Guiscard, began their conquest of Sicily in 1061, they already controlled the far south of Italy (Apulia and Calabria). It took Roger 30 years to complete the conquest of Sicily (Robert died in 1085).[55] In the aftermath of the Normandish conquest of Sicily, the revitalization of Leeden in Sicily had begun, and some Normandish and Normandish-French words would be absorbed:[56] but many etymologies are disputed and the only sure marker of a typical Normandish word is its Scandinavian origin, such words do not exist in Sickilish.

  • accattari – "to buy" (from Normandish French acater,[45] French acheter; but there are different varieties of this Leeden etymon in the Romania, cf. Old Provençal acatar)[57]
  • ammucciari – "to hide" (Old Normandish French muchier, Normandish French muchi/mucher, Old French mucier; but also Greekish mychós)
  • bucceri/vucceri "butcher" (from Old French bouchier)[49]
  • custureri – "tailor" (Old French cousturier; Latterday French couturier)[49]
  • firranti – "grey" (from Old French ferrant)[45]
  • foddi – "mad" (Old French fol, whence French fou)[49]
  • giugnettu – "July" (Old French juignet)[49]
  • ladiu/laiu – "ugly" (Old French laid)[49]
  • largasìa – "generosity" (largesse; but also Spanish largueza)[45]
  • puseri – "thumb" (Old French pochier)[45]
  • racina – "grape" (Old French, French raisin)[49]
  • raggia – "anger" (Old French, French rage)[49]
  • trippari – "to hop, skip" (Normandish French triper)[45]

Other Gallish infloods[]

The Northern Italish inflood is of particular interest. Even to the present day, Gall-Italish of Sicily exists in the areas where the Northern Italish colonies were the strongest, namely Novara, Nicosia, Sperlinga, Aidone and Piazza Armerina.[49] The Siculish-Gallish bytung did not survive in other major Italish colonies, such as Randazzo, Caltagirone, Bronte and Paternò (although they swayed the local Sickilish vernacular). The Gallo-Italish inflood was also felt on the Sickilish tung itself, as follows:[49]

  • sòggiru – "father-in-law" (from suoxer)
  • cugnatu – "brother-in-law" (from cognau)
  • figghiozzu – "godson" (from figlioz)
  • orbu/orvu – blind (from orb)
  • arricintari – "to rinse" (from rexentar)
  • unni – "where" (from ond)
  • the names of the days of the week:
    • luni – "Monday" (from lunes)
    • marti – "Tuesday" (from martes)
    • mèrcuri – "Wednesday" (from mèrcor)
    • jovi – "Thursday" (from juovia)
    • vènniri – "Friday" (from vènner)

Old Occitanish inflood[]

The origins of another Romanish inflood, that of Old Occitanish, had three possible sources:

  1. As mentioned above, the rime of actual Normans in Sicily is unlikely to have ever been significant. They were boosted by mercenaries from southern Italy, but it is possible also that mercenaries came from as far away as southern France. The Normans made San Fratello a garrison town in the early years of the occupation of the northeastern corner of Sicily. To this day (in ever decreasing rimes) a Siculish-Gallish bytung is spoken in San Fratello that is clearly swayed by Old Occitanish, which leads to the conclusion that a significant rime in the garrison came from that part of France.[58] This may well explain the bytung spoken only in San Fratello, but it does not wholly explain the diffusion of many Occitanish words into the Sickilish tung. On that point, there are two other possibilities:
  2. Some Occitanish words may have entered the tung during the regency of Margaret of Navarre between 1166 and 1171, when her son, William II of Sicily, succeeded to the throne at the age of 12. Her closest advisers, entourage and administrators were from the south of France,[55] and many Occitanish words entered the tung during this period.
  3. The Sickilish School of poetry was strongly swayed by the Occitanish of the troubadour tradition.[58] This element is deeply embedded in Sickilish culture: for byspel, the tradition of Sickilish puppetry (òpira dî pupi) and the tradition of the cantastorii (literally "story-singers"). Occitanish troubadours were active during the reign of Frederick II, Holy Romish Emperor, and some Occitanish words would have passed into the Sickilish tung via this route.

Some byspels of Sickilish words derived from Occitanish:

  • addumari – "to light, to turn something on" (from allumar)[45]
  • aggrifari – "to kidnap, abduct" (from grifar; but also Theech greiffen)[45]
  • banna – "side, place" (from banda)[45]
  • burgisi – "landowner, borougher" (from borges)
  • lascu – "sparse, thin, infrequent" (from lasc)[45]
  • paraggiu – "equal" (from paratge).[45]

Sickilish School of Poetry[]

It was during the reign of Frederick II (or Frederick I of Sicily) between 1198 and 1250, with his patronage of the Sickilish School, that Sickilish became the first of the latterday Italish tungs to be noted as a bookly tung.[59] The inflood of the school and the note of Sickilish itself as a poetic tung was acknowledged by the two great Tuscan writers of the early Renaissance period, Dante and Petrarch. The inflood of the Sickilish tung should not be underestimated in the eventual formulation of a lingua franca that was to become latterday Italish. The victory of the Angevin army over the Sickilish at Benevento in 1266 not only marked the end of the 136-year Normandish-Swabish reign in Sicily but also effectively ensured that the centre of bookly inflood would eventually move from Sicily to Tuscany.[59] While Sickilish, as both a reevetung and a bookly tung, would continue to exist for another two yearhundreds, the tung would soon follow the fortunes of the kingdom itself in terms of prestige and inflood.

Catalandish inflood[]

Following the Sickilish Vespers of 1282, the kingdom was to come under the inflood of the Crown of Aragon,[60] and so the Catalandish tung (and the closely related Aragonish) would add a new layer of word-hoard in the succeeding yearhundred. For the whole of the 14th yearhundred, both Catalandish and Sickilish were the revetungs of the royal court.[61] Sickilish was also noted to record the proceedings of the Parliament of Sicily (one of the oldest parliaments in Europe) and for other official purposes.[62] While it is often difficult to determine whether a word has come to us directly from Catalandish (as opposed to Provençal or Spanish), the following are likely to be such byspels:

  • addunàrisi – "to notice, realise" (from adonar-se)[45]
  • affruntàrisi – "to be embarrassed" (from afrontar-se)[45]
  • arruciari – "to moisten, soak" (from arruixar)[45]
  • criscimonia – "growth, development" (from creiximoni)[45]
  • muccaturi – "handkerchief" (from mocador; but also French mouchoir)[45]
  • priàrisi – "to be pleased" (from prear-se)[45]
  • taliari – "to look at somebody/something" (from talaiar; but also Arabish طليعة‎ ṭalīʿa).

Spanish tide to the latterday eld[]

By the time the crowns of Castille and Aragon were oned in the late 15th yearhundred, the Italishening of written Sickilish in the parliamentary and court records had commenced. By 1543 this process was virtually complete, with the Tuscish undertung of Italish becoming the shared tung of the Italish peninsula and supplanting written Sickilish.[62]

Spanish rule had hastened this process in two important ways:

  • Unlike the Aragonese, almost immediately the Spanish placed viceroys on the Sickilish throne. In a sense, the diminishing prestige of the Sickilish kingdom reflected the decline of Sickilish from an official, written tung to eventually a spoken tung amongst a predominantly illiterate population.
  • The expulsion of all Jews from Spanish dominions ca. 1492 altered the population of Sicily. Not only did the population decline, many of whom were involved in important educated industries, but some of these Jewish families had been in Sicily for around 1,500 years, and Sickilish was their native tung which they noted in their schools. Thus the seeds of a possible broad-based education system utilising books written in Sickilish was lost.[62]

Spanish rule lasted over three yearhundreds (not counting the Aragonish and Bourbon periods on either side) and had a significant inflood on the Sickilish word-hoard. The following words are of Spanish derivation:

  • arricugghìrisi – "to return home" (from recogerse; but also Catalandish recollir-se)
  • balanza/valanza – "scales" (from balanza)[45]
  • fileccia – "arrow" (from flecha)[45]
  • làstima – "lament, annoyance" (from lástima)[45]
  • pinzeddu – "brush" (from pincel)[45]
  • ricivu – "receipt" (from recibo)[45]
  • spagnari – "to be frightened" (crossover of local appagnari with Spanish espantarse)[45]
  • spatari – "to impede or disarm someone of his sword" (from local spata with Spanish espadar)[45]
  • sulità/sulitati – "solitude" (from soledad)[45]

Since the Italish Unification (the Risorgimento of 1860–1861), the Sickilish tung has been significantly swayed by (Tuscan) Italish. During the Bundlerike period it became obligatory that Italish be taught and spoken in all schools, whereas up to that point, Sickilish had been noted extensively in schools.[63] This process has quickened since World War II owing to improving educational benchmarks and the impact of mass media, such that increasingly, even within the family home, Sickilish is not necessarily the tung of choice.[63] The Sickilish Regional Assembly voted to make the teaching of Sickilish a part of the school curriculum at primary school level, but as of 2007 only a fraction of schools teach Sickilish.[63] There is also little in the way of mass media offered in Sickilish. The combination of these factors means that the Sickilish tung continues to adopt Italish word-hoard and grammatical forms to such an extent that many Sickilish folk themselves cannot distinguish between correct and incorrect Sickilish.[64][65][66]

Distinguishing traits of Sickilish[]

Phonetics and phonology[]

For the cling-to-spelling correspondence, see Sickilish orthography.

Phonemic withlides[67]
Bilabial Labio-






Palatal Velar
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Affricate ts dz tʃ dʒ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ
Trill r
Flap ɾ
Nasal m n ɲ [ŋ]
Lateral l
Approximant j [w]
Phonemic clipples[67]
Siclian rightspelling IPA English byspel Sickilish byspel
a /a/ father patri
e /ɛ/ best bedda
i /i/ beast chiddu
o /ɔ/ claw sò
u /u/ to tuttu


Sickilish has a rime of withlide clings that, although not unique to Sickilish, certainly set it apart from the other major Romanish tungs. The most unusual clings include, but are not limited to, the retroflex withlides.[68][69]

  • ḌḌ/DD — The -ll- cling (in words of Leeden origin, for byspel) manifests itself in Sickilish as a voiced retroflex stop [ɖː] with the tip of the tongue curled up and back, a cling rare in the Romanish tungs (the only other notable exceptions being Sardinish, and to an extent Asturish; such a realization of Leeden -ll- may also be found elsewhere in Southern Italy, and in certain northwestern Tuscan undertungs). Traditionally in Sickilish Leeden, this cling was written as -đđ-, and more latterly -dd- has been noted, also often found written -ddh- or even -ddr- (the first and latter of which are often considered confusing as they may also represent [dː] and [ɖːɽ], respectively). In the Cademia Siciliana orthographical proposal as well as the Vocabolario siciliano descriptive orthography the bookstaff -ḍḍ- is noted.[70][71] For byspel, the Italish word bello [ˈbɛllo] is beḍḍu [ˈbɛɖːʊ] in Sickilish.[69]
  • DR and TR — The Sickilish pronunciation of the digraphs -dr- and -tr- is [ɖɽ] and [ʈɽ],[70] or even [ɖʐ], [ʈʂ].
  • RR — The withlide cluster -rr-, depending on the variety of Sickilish, can be a strongly trilled [rː][70] or a voiced retroflex hiss [ʐː].[69] This innovation is also found under slightly different circumstances in Polish, where it is spelled -rz-, and in some Northern Norwegian undertungs, where speakers vary between [ʐ] and [ɹ̝]. At the beginning of a word, the single bookstaff r is similarly always pronounced double, though this is not indicated orthographically. This phenomenon, however, does not include words that start with a single r resulting from roadening or apheresis (see below), which should not be indicated orthographically to avoid confusion with regular double r.
  • STR — The Sickilish trigraph -str- is [ʂːɽ][70] or [ʂː]. The t is not pronounced at all and there is a faint whistle between the s and the r, producing a similar cling to the shr of English shred.
  • Leeden FL — The other unique Sickilish cling is found in those words that have been derived from Leeden words containing -fl-. In mean bookly Sickilish, the cling is rendered as -ci- (representing the voiceless palatal fricative /ç/), f.b. ciumi [ˈçuːmɪ] ("river", from Leeden flūmen), but can also be found in written forms such as -hi--x(h)--çi-, or erroneously -sci-.[72]
  • Consonantal lenition — A further range of consonantal cling shifts occurred between the Folkleeden introduced to the iland following Normandish rule and the subsequent development of the Sickilish tung. These cling shifts include: Leeden -nd- to Sickilish -nn-; Leeden -mb- to Sickilish -mm-; Leeden -pl- to Sickilish -chi-; and Leeden -li- to Sickilish -gghi-.[73]
  • Roadening and apheresis — This transformation is characterized by the substitution of single d by r. In Sickilish this is produced by a single flap of the tongue against the upper alveolar ridge [ɾ]. This phenomenon is known as roadening, that is, the substitution of r for another withlide; it is commonly found both in Eastern and Western Sickilish, and elsewhere in Southern Italy, especially in Neapolish. It can occur internally, or it can affect initial d, in which case it should not be represented orthographically to avoid confusion with the regular r (see above). Byspels : pedi ("foot") is pronounced [ˈpɛːɾɪ]; Madonna ("Virgin Mary") is pronounced [maˈɾɔnna]; lu diri ("to say it") is pronounced [lʊ ˈɾiːɾɪ].[74] Similarly, apheresis of some clusters may occur in certain bytungs, producing instances such a'ranni [ˈɾannɪ] for granni "big".


The development of the Sickilish clipple system.

Unlike the seven clipples of Folkleeden and many latterday Romanish tungs, the Sickilish clipple system only includes five: a /a/, e /ɛ/, i /i/, o /ɔ/, u /u/, reduced to only three in unstressed position: a /a/, i [ɪ], u [ʊ] (unstressed clipples o and e of Leeden became unstressed u and i in Sickilish). This causes the clipples u and i to have a far greater presence than o and e in Sickilish,[49] whereas the opposite is true in other Romanish tungs such as Spanish and Italish (notwithstanding the conservative nature of Sickilish, which retains the clipple u of the Leeden stems -us and -um): in this Sickilish is nearer to Portingalish instead (which however spells such unstressed clipples as o and e, too). In addition, one will never find a Sickilish word ending in the unaccented clipples e or o, with the exception of monosyllabic linkwords and certain recent loanwords: in fact, owing to the inflood of Italish in the media after World War II, as well as the recent influx of English terminology related to technology and globalization, there is an increasing rime of words entering the Sickilish word-hoard that do not adhere to the Sickilish clipple system.

Omission of initial i[]

In most instances where the originating word has had an initial i, Sickilish has dropped it completely. This can also happen occasionally where there was once an initial e, and to a lesser extent a and o. Byspels: mpurtanti "important", gnuranti "loreless", nimicu "foe", ntirissanti "interesting", llustrari "to illustrate", mmàggini "image", cona "icon", miricanu "American".[72][75]

Gemination and contractions[]

In Sickilish, gemination is distinctive for most withlide phonemes, though a few can only be geminated after a clipple: these are /b/, /dʒ/, /ɖ/, /ɲ/, /ʃ/ and /ts/. Rarely indicated in writing, spoken Sickilish also exhibits syntactic gemination (or dubbramentu),[76] which means that the first withlide of a word is lengthened when it is preceded by certain clipple-ending words, f.b. è caru [ˌɛ kˈkaːɾʊ].[77]

The bookstaff j at the start of a word can have two separate clings, depending on what precedes the word.[78] For instance, in jornu ("day"), the j is pronounced [j] as in English y, [ˈjɔɾnʊ]. However, after a nasal withlide or triggered by syntactic gemination, it is pronounced [ɟ] (like English gu in argue) as in un jornu "one day" [ʊɲ ˈɟɔɾnʊ] or tri jorna ("three days") [ˌʈɽi ɟˈɟɔɾna].[79]

Another difference between the written and spoken tungs is the extent to which contractions will occur in everyday speech. Thus a common expression such as avemu a accattari... ("we have to go and buy...") will generally be reduced to amâ 'ccattari when talking to family and friends.[80]

The circumflex is commonly noted in denoting a wide range of contractions in the written tung, in particular, the joining of simple prepositions and the definite article. Byspels: di lu =  ("of the"), a lu = ô ("to the"), pi lu =  ("for the"), nta lu = ntô ("in the"), etc.[81][72]

Kun and morefolds[]

Most wifely names and ekends end in -a in the onefold atell, f.b. casa ("house"), porta ("door"), carta ("paper"). Exceptions include soru ("sister") and ficu ("fig"). The usual werely onefold ending is -u, f.b. omu ("man"), libbru ("book"), nomu ("name"). The onefold ending -i can be either werely or wifely.[82]

Unlike mean Italish, Sickilish notes the same morefold ending -i for both werely and wifely names and ekends, f.b. casi ("houses" or "falls"), porti ("doors" or "harbors"), tàuli ("beeds"). Some werely morefold names end in -a instead, a trait derived from the Leeden neither endings -um, -a. Byspels include libbra ("books"), jorna ("days"), jòcura ("games"), vrazza ("arms", compare Italish braccio, braccia), jardina ("gardens"), scrittura ("writers"), signa ("signs").[82] The name omu has the irregular morefold òmini (compare Italish uomo, uomini). Three names are invariable in the morefold: manu ("hand[s]"), ficu ("fig[s]") and soru ("sister[s]").[83].


Deedword "to have"[]

Sickilish only has one auxiliary deedword, aviri "to have".[84][85] This deedword is also noted to denote obligation (f.b. avi a jiri [ˌaːvjaɟˈɟiːɾɪ] "[he/she] has to go"),[80] and to form the toward tide, as Sickilish, for the most part, no longer has a synthetic toward tide; for byspel: avi a cantari "[he/she] will sing" ([ˌaːvjakkanˈtaːɾɪ] or [ˌaːwakkanˈdaːɾɪ], depending on the bytung).[84]

Deedword "to go" and the periphrastic toward tide[]

As in English, and most Romanish tungs, Sickilish may note the deedword jiri "to go" to signify the act of being about to do something. Vaiu a cantari "I'm going to sing" (pronounced [ˌvaːjwakkanˈtaːɾɪ]) "I'm going to sing". In this way, jiri + a + unendingly can also be a way to form the simple toward tide construction.[86]

Timings and moods[]

The main theednesses in Sickilish are illustrated below with the deedword èssiri "to be".[87]

Unendingly èssiri / siri
Gerund essennu / sennu
Forthwitten dealnimmer statu
Beckoningly eu/iu/ju tu iḍḍu nuàutri vuàutri iḍḍi
Anward tide sugnu si' esti / è semu siti sunnu / su'
Unfulfremmed era eri era èramu èravu èranu
Preterite fui fusti fu fomu fùstivu foru
Toward tide1
Conditional2 ju tu iḍḍu nuàutri vuàutri iḍḍi
fora fori fora fòramu fòravu fòranu
Undertheedingly ju tu iḍḍu nuàutri vuàutri iḍḍi
Anward sia si' / fussi sia siamu siati sianu
Unfulfremmed fussi fussi fussi fùssimu fùssivu fùssiru
Bebiddingly tu vossìa3 vuàutri
fussi siti
  1. The synthetic toward tide is rarely noted, and as Camilleri explains, continues its decline towards complete disuse;[84] instead, the following methods are noted to express the toward tide:
    1) note of the anward beckoningly shape, usually preceded by an adverb of time:
    Stasira vaiu ô tiatru — "This evening I go to the theatre"; or, using a similar English construction, "This evening I am going to the theatre"
    Dumani ti scrivu — "Tomorrow I [will] write to you"
    2) note of a compound form consisting of the appropriate theedness of aviri a ("have to") in combination with the unendingly form of the deedword in question:
    Stasira aju a jiri ô tiatru — "This evening I will [/must] go to the theatre"
    Dumani t'aju a scrìviri — "Tomorrow I will [/must] write to you"
    In speech, the contracted forms of aviri often come into play:
    aju a → /ai a → avi a → avâavemu a → amâaviti a → atâ
    Dumani t'hâ scrìviri — "Tomorrow I will [/must] write to you".[86]
  2. The synthetic conditional has also fallen into disuse (except for the bytung spoken in Messina, missinisi).[88] The conditional has two tenses:
    1) the anward conditional, which is replaced by either:
    i) the anward beckoningly shape:
    Cci chiamu si tu mi duni lu sò nùmmaru — "I [would] call her if you [would] give me her number", or
    ii) the unfulfremmed undertheedingly shape:
    Cci chiamassi si tu mi dassi lu sò nùmmaru — "I'd call her if you would give me her number"; and
    2) the past conditional, which is replaced by the pluperfect undertheedingly shape:
    Cci avissi jutu si tu m'avissi dittu [/diciutu] unni esti / è — "I'd have gone if you would have told me where it is"
    Note that in a hypothetical statement, both tenses are replaced by the unfulfremmed and pluperfect undertheedingly shape:
    Si fussi riccu m'accattassi nu palazzu — "If I were rich I would buy a palace"
    S'avissi travagghiatu nun avissi patutu la misèria — "If I had worked I wouldn't have suffered misery".[89]
  3. The 2er-hoad onefold (polite) utilises the older form of the anward undertheedingly, for byspel parrassi, which has the effect of softening it somewhat into a request rather than an instruction. The 2er-hoad onefold and morefold forms of the bebiddingly shape are the same as the anward beckoningly shape, with the exception of the 2er-hoad onefold -ari deedwords, where the ending is the same as for the 3rd hoad onefold, for byspel parra.[90]

Byspels of the written tung[]

Pluckings from three of Sicily's more celebrated leethers are offered below to illustrate the written form of Sickilish over the last few yearhundreds: Antonio Veneziano, Giovanni Meli and Nino Martoglio.

An oversetting of the Lord's Bead can also be found in J. K. Bonner.[91] This is written with three variations: a mean bookly form from the iland of Sicily and a southern Apulian bookly form.

Plucking from Antonio Veneziano[]

Celia, Lib. 2[]

(ca. 1575–1580)

Sickilish Italish English
Non è xhiamma ordinaria, no, la mia, No, la mia non è fiamma ordinaria, No, mine is no ordinary flame,
è xhiamma chi sul'iu tegnu e rizettu, è una fiamma che sol'io possiedo e controllo, it's a flame that only I possess and control,
xhiamma pura e celesti, ch'ardi 'n mia; una fiamma pura e celeste che dientro di me cresce; a pure celestial flame that in me grows;
per gran misteriu e cu stupendu effettu. da un grande mistero e con stupendo effetto. by a great mystery and with great effect.
Amuri, 'ntentu a fari idulatria, l'Amore, desiderante d'adorare icone, Love, wanting to worship idols,
s'ha novamenti sazerdoti elettu; è diventato sacerdote un'altra volta; has once again become a high priest;
tu, sculpita 'ntra st'alma, sìa la dia; tu, scolpita dentro quest'anima, sei la dea; you, sculpted in this soul, are the goddess;
sacrifiziu lu cori, ara stu pettu. il mio cuore è la vittima, il mio seno è l'altare. my heart is the victim, my breast is the altar.[92]

Plucking from Giovanni Meli[]

Don Chisciotti e Sanciu Panza (Cantu quintu)[]


Sickilish English
Stracanciatu di notti soli jiri; Disguised he roams at night alone;
S'ammuccia ntra purtuni e cantuneri; Hiding in any nook and cranny;
cu vacabunni ci mustra piaciri; he enjoys the company of vagabonds;
poi lu so sbiu sunnu li sumeri, however, donkeys are his real diversion,
li pruteggi e li pigghia a ben vuliri, he protects them and looks after all their needs,
li tratta pri parenti e amici veri; treating them as real family and friends;
siccomu ancora è n'amicu viraci since he remains a true friend
di li bizzarri, capricciusi e audaci. of all who are bizarre, capricious and bold.[93]

Plucking from Nino Martoglio[]

Briscula 'n Cumpagni[]

(~1900; trans: A game of Briscula amongst friends)[94]

Sickilish Italish English
— Càrricu, mancu? Cca cc'è 'n sei di spati!... — Nemmeno un carico? Qui c'è un sei di spade!... — A high card perhaps? Here's the six of spades!...
— E chi schifiu è, di sta manera? — Ma che schifo, in questo modo? — What is this rubbish you're playing?
Don Peppi Nnappa, d'accussì jucati? Signor Peppe Nappa,[a] ma giocate così? Mr. Peppe Nappa, who taught you to play this game?
— Massari e scecchi tutta 'a tistera, — Messere e asino con tutti i finimenti, — My dear gentlemen and donkeys with all your finery,
comu vi l'haju a diri, a vastunati, come ve lo devo dire, forse a bastonate, as I have repeatedly told you till I'm blue in the face,
ca mancu haju sali di salera! che non ho nemmeno il sale per la saliera! I ain't got nothing that's even worth a pinch a salt!

Traditional beads compared to Italish[]

Patri nnostru (Lord's Bead in Sickilish) Padre nostro (Lord's Bead in Italish) Aviu Maria (Hail Mary in Sickilish) Ave Maria (Hail Mary in Italish) Salvi o'Rigina (Salve Regina in Sickilish) Salve Regina (in Italish) Angelu ca ni custudisci (Angel of God in Sickilish) Angelo Custode (Angel of God in Italish)
Patri nostru, ca si nò celu,
Santificatu sia lu nomu vostru,
Vinissi prestu lu vostru regnu,
Sempri sia faciuta la vostra Divina Vuluntati
comu n celu accussì n terra.
Dàtannillu a sta jurnata lu panuzzu cutiddianu
E pirdunàtini li nostri piccati
Accussì comu nanddri li rimintemu ê nimici nostri;
E nun ni lassati cascari ntâ tintazzioni,
ma scanzàtini dû mali.
Padre nostro, che sei nei cieli,
sia santificato il tuo nome,
venga il tuo regno,
sia fatta la tua volontà, come in cielo così in terra.
Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano,
e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti
come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori,
e non ci indurre in tentazione,[1]
ma liberaci dal male.
Aviu maria, china di grazia,
u' Signuri è cu tia,
tu sì a biniditta 'menzu i donni,
e binidittu è u' fruttu dò tò senu Gesù,
Santa Maria, matri di Diu,
prega pì nanddri piccatura,
ora e nò momentu da nostra morti.
Ave, o Maria, piena di grazia,
il Signore è con te.
Tu sei benedetta fra le donne
e benedetto è il frutto del tuo seno, Gesù.
Santa Maria, Madre di Dio,
prega per noi peccatori,
adesso e nell'ora della nostra morte.
Salvi o'Regina,
matri di misericordia, è vita, è duci, spiranza nostra
salvi, a tia ricurremu, naddri figghi di Eva
a tia sospiramu, chiangennu,
ne sta valli di lacrimi, allura abbucata
nostra talinani cu chiddri occhi tò misericurdiusi,
e fanni abbidiri doppu, stu esiliu Gesù
u'fruttu binidittu dò tò senu  
O clemente, bona
o duci Virgini Maria!
Salve, Regina, Madre di misericordia;
vita, dolcezza e speranza nostra, salve.
A Te ricorriamo, noi esuli figli di Eva;
a Te sospiriamo, gementi e piangenti
in questa valle di lacrime.
Orsù dunque, avvocata nostra,
rivolgi a noi gli occhi
tuoi misericordiosi.
E mostraci, dopo questo esilio, Gesù,
il frutto benedetto del Tuo seno.
O clemente, o pia,
o dolce Vergine Maria!
Angelu di Diu
ca sì u'me custodi,
alluminami, custudiscimi, tenimi e guvernami
ca ti vinni datu/a da pietà celeste
Angelo di Dio,
che sei il mio custode,
illumina, custodisci,
reggi e governa me
che ti fui affidato/a
dalla Pietà Celeste.

Infloods on the Italish tung[]

As one of the most spoken tungs of Italy, Sickilish has notably swayed the Italish word-hoard. In fact, there are several Sickilish words that are nowadays part of the Italish tung; they usually refer to things closely associated to Sickilish culture, with some notable exceptions:[95]

  • arancino (from arancinu): a Sickilish cuisine specialty;
  • canestrato (from ncannistratu): a cheese typical of Sicily;
  • cannolo (from cannolu): a Sickilish pastry;
  • cannolicchio (from cannulicchiu): razor clam;
  • carnezzeria (from carnizzaria): butcher's shop;
  • caruso (from carusu): boy, especially a Sickilish one;
  • cassata: a Sickilish pastry;
  • cirneco (from cirnecu): a small breed of dogs common in Sicily;
  • cosca: a small group of criminals affiliated to the Sickilish mafia;
  • curatolo (from curàtulu): watchman in a farm, with a yearly contract;
  • dammuso (from dammusu): stony habitation typical of the iland of Pantelleria;
  • intrallazzo (from ntrallazzu): illegal exchange of goods or favours, but in a wider sense also cheat, intrigue;
  • marranzano (from marranzanu): Jew's harp;
  • marrobbio (from marrubbiu): quick variation of sea level produced by a store of water in the coasts as a consequence of either wind action or an atmospheric depression;
  • minchia: penis in its original meaning, but also stupid person; is also widely noted as a betwixtwarp to show either astonishment or rage;
  • picciotto (from picciottu): young man, but also the lowest grade in the Mafia hierarchy;
  • pizzino (from pizzinu): small piece of paper, especially noted for secret criminal communications;
  • pizzo (from pizzu, literally meaning "beak", from the saying fari vagnari a pizzu "to wet one's beak"): protection money paid to the Mafia;
  • quaquaraquà (onomatopoeia?; "the duck wants a say"): person devoid of value, nonentity;
  • scasare (from scasari, literally "to move home"): to leave en masse;
  • stidda (equivalent to Italish stella): lower Mafia organization.

Language situation today[]


Sickilish is estimated to have 5,000,000 speakers.[96] However, it remains very much a home tung spoken among peers and close associates. Regional Italish has encroached on Sickilish, most evidently in the speech of the younger generations.[97]

When it comes to the written tung, in Sicily it is mainly restricted to poetry and theatre. The education layout does not support the tung, despite recent legislative changes, as mentioned previously. Local loresteads do not carry courses in Sickilish, or where they do it is described as dialettologia, that is, the study of bytungs.


Outside Sicily, there is an extensive Sickilish diaspora living in several major boroughs across South and North America, as well as other parts of Europe and Australia, where Sickilish has been preserved to varying degrees.


The Sickilish-American organization Arba Sicula publishes stories, poems and essays, in Sickilish with English translations, in an effort to preserve the Sickilish tung, in Arba Sicula, its twitongued annual journal (latest issue: 2017), and in a biennial newsletter entitled Sicilia Parra.

The film La Terra Trema (1948) is wholly in Sickilish, using many local, not-professional playmen.

The not-profit organisation Cademia Siciliana publishes a Sickilish version of the quarterly tidewrit the UNESCO Courier.

Other words and phrases[]

English Sickilish Pronunciation
to make a good impression fà[ci]ri na beḍḍa fi[g]ùra [ˈfaː(ʃɪ)ɾɪ na bˈbɛɖːa fɪˈ(ɡ)uːɾa]
wine vinu [ˈviːnʊ]
man omu [ˈɔːmʊ]
woman fìmmina [ˈfimmɪna]
the other side ḍḍabbanna [ɖːa bˈbanna]
there ḍḍa [ˈɖːa]
right there ḍḍocu [ˈɖːɔːkʊ]
you (formal) vossìa [vɔsˈsiːa]
be careful! accura! [akˈkuːɾa]
he, him iḍḍu [ˈiɖːʊ]
she, her iḍḍa [ˈiɖːa]
he who pays before seeing the goods gets cheated

(literally "who pays before, eats smelly fish")

cu paja prima, mancia li pisci fitùsi [ˌku ˈpaːja ˈpɾiːma ˈmantʃa lɪ ˈpiʃʃɪ fɪˈtuːsɪ]

Links to leaves about tungs (adight)
Kin of tungs Tungs
Ind-Europish tungs
Theedish tungs North Theedish tungs: Faroish - Norish - Icelandish (High Icelandish) - Old Norse - Old Gutnish - South Jutish - Danish - Swedish - Gutnish (moot) - Elfdalish (moot) - Norn tung (dead)
West Theedish tungs:
Weser-Rhine Theedish tungs: Old Low Frankish - Netherlandish - Highsunlandish tung - Zeelandish - Flemish (moot)
Elbe Theedish tungs: Old High Theech - Theech tung - Allmenish - Bairish - Wymysorys tung - Lombardish (dead) - Littleburgish - Yiddish - Ripuarish
North Sea Theedish tungs: Saxish (Old Saxish - Middle Low Saxish - Low Saxish) | English (Old English - Middle English - Latterday English - Anglish (moot) - Lowland Scottish - Northumberish tung (moot) Cumberish tung (moot) - Yola) | Friesish (Old Friesish - Western Friesish - Northern Friesish - Saterland Friesish)

East Theedish tungs (dead): Gottish tung - Wendish tung - Burgundish tung

Celtish tungs Mainland Celtish tungs (dead): Galatish - Gaulish - Celtiberish - Gallaicish - Lepontish - East Celtish tung
Gelish tungs: Irish - Scottish Gelish - Manx tung
Brythonish tungs: Cornish - Welsh - Breton tung
Other: Shelta
Balt-Windish tungs Windish tungs:
East Windish tungs: Russish - Ukrainish - White Russish -Russinish
West Windish tungs: Slesish - Polish - Bohemish (a.k.a. Checkish) - Slovakish - Kashubish - West Pomeranish (dead) - Polabish/Onelbish (dead) - Upper Sorbish - Lower Sorbish
South Windish tungs: Serb-Croatish (Serbish - Blackbarrowish - Bosnish - Croatish) - Bulgarish - Macedonish - Slovenish

Baltish tungs:
Eastern Baltish tungs: Lettish - Latgalish (moot) - Lithuish - Samogitish (moot) - Selonish (dead) - Zemgalish (dead) - Courlandish (dead)
Western Baltish tungs (dead): Old Prussish - Sudovish - Western Galindish - Skalvish?
Eastern Galindish (dead)
Italish tungs Sabellish tungs (dead): Umbrish - Osckish - Volscish - Sabinish? - South Picenish - Marsish - Fore-Samnitish

Latish-Faliscish tungs (dead):
Latish (Folklatish) - Faliscish
Romanish tungs: Italish-Western tungs:
Italish-Dalmatish: Istriotish tung - Tuscish - Venetish - Sassarish - Sicilish - Italish
Western-Romanish tungs: Gallish-Romanish (Old French - Middle French - Latterday French - Wallonish - Normandish (Angle-Normandish) - Burgundish tung (Romanish) - Savoyardish - Occitanish - Catalandish - Lombardish) - Ligurish - Foothillish - Emilianish | Iberish-Romanish tungs (Spanish - Mirandish - Portugalish - Sephardish)
Eastern-Romanish tungs: Romeenish - Aromeenish - Meglenitish - Istro-Romeenish (deathbound)

Hellenish tungs Greekish - Tsakonish - Yevanish
Ind-Iranish tungs Ind-Aryish: (Hindlandish offshoots: Hindish - Urdu tung) - Punjabish - Sindhish - Mean Rajasthanish - Gujaratish - Romani tungs - Kashmirish - Nepalish - Chhattisgarhish - Bhojpurish - Maithili tung - Odia tung - Bengalish - Assamish - Marathi tung - Singhalish - Maldivish

Iranish: Persish - Kurdish tungs - Old Persish (dead) - Medish (dead) - Old Azerish - Parthish - Balochi tung - Gilanish - Mazanderani tung - Gorganish (dead) - Semnanish - Sangsarish - Lasgerdi tung - Sorkhei tung - Zaza tung - Gorani tung - Talysh tung - Gozarkhani tung - Karinganish - Tatish - Southern Bashkardi tung - Garmsiri tung - Sivandi tung - Gazi tung - Kumzari tung - Larestanish - Lurish - Kuhmareyi tung - Pashtunish - Bactrish (dead) - Khwarezmish (dead) - Sogdish (dead) - Wakhi tung - Munjanish - Yidgha tung - Ormuri tung - Parachi tung - Yaghnobish - Ossetish - Old Avestish (dead) - Younger Avestish (dead)
Nuristanish tungs: Kamkata-vari tung - Wasi-wari tung - Ashkunish - Waigalish - Tregamish - Zemyaki tung (deathbound)

Anatolish tungs Hettitish - Palaish Luvish - Lykish - Milyish - Carish - Sidetish - Pisidish - Lydish
Other Ind-Europish Albanish - Armenish - Thracish (dead) - Dacish (dead) - Lusitanish (dead) - Illyrish (dead) - Messapish (dead) - Frygish (dead) - Paionish (dead) - Mysish (dead) - Liburnish (dead) - Cimmerish (dead) - Sicelish? (dead)
Afrosunriselandish tungs
Semitish tungs Amharish - Arabish - Aramaish - Hebrew - Assyrish
Uralish tungs
Balt-Fennish Estish - Finnish - Sami tungs - Livonish (deathbound) - Karelish - Vepsish - Ludish (moot) - Votish (deathbound) - Izhorish (deathbound)
Ugrish? Ungarish - Chantish - Mansish
Turkish tungs
Oghuz Mickleyard Turkish - Azerish - Turkmen tung
Karluk Uzbek tung - Uyghur tung
Khalaj Khalaj tung
Oghur Chuvash tung - Hunnish tung? (dead) - Avar tung? (dead)
Siberish Sakha tung - Tuvish tung - Khakas tung - Chulym tung
Kipchak Kazakh tung - Kyrgyz tung - Tatar tung - Krimlandish Tatar tung
Japonish tungs
Japanish tung - Ryukyu tungs (moot)
Mongolish tungs
Khalkha tung - Buryat tung
Southialandish tungs
Philippine Philipslandish - Yami tung - Ivatan tung
Malayish Malay tung - Indonesish tung - Mualang tung
Polynesish Tongish - Samoish - Marquesish - Firelandish - Tahitish - Maorish
Sinitish-Tibetish tungs
Sinitish Chinesish
Tibetish-Burmish Burmish - Tibetish - Dzongkha tung
Niger-Congo tungs
Swahilish - Yorubish tung - Zulu tung
Koreish tungs
Koreish - Jeju tung
Southasiatish tungs
Forbinded tungs Papiamento tung
Lone tungs
Baskish - Ainu tung
Cherokee tung - Canaman Folktung - Esperantish tung (crafted) - Etruscish tung (dead) - Folkspraak tung (crafted) - Greenlandish tung - Toki Pona Tung (crafted) - Volapuk (crafted)