Silesish Tung or Upper Silesish (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka / ślůnsko godka [ˈɕlonskɔ ˈɡɔtka]; Checkish: slezština; Polish: gwara śląska, język śląski, etnolekt śląski; Theedish: Schlonsakisch, Wasserpolnisch (pej.)) is a West Slavic lect of the Lechitic samming, spoken in Upper Silesia and partly in Czech Silesia. Its wordstock has been markwothly inflowed by Middle Theedish owing to the wistness of Itellfold Silesian Theedish speakers in the spot earlier to World War II and after.
There is no lastly speaking on the tunglorish kind of Silesian. Some findings cast it as one of the four main folktung of Polish, while others kindship it as a shedded tung, far from Polish.
Silesian speakers currently live in the region of Upper Silesia, which is split between southwestern Poland and the northeastern Czech Republic. At present Silesian is commonly spoken in the area between the historical border of Silesia on the east and a line from Syców to Prudnik on the west as well as in the Rawicz area. Until 1945 Silesian was also spoken in enclaves in Lower Silesia.
Lower Silesian, a variety of Central German, was spoken by the ethnic German majority population of that region. The German speaking populace was either evacuated en masse by German forces towards the end of the war or deported by the new administration upon the Polish annexation of Silesia after World War II. Before the war, most Slavic speakers also spoke German and, at least in eastern Upper Silesia, many German-speakers were acquainted with Slavic Silesian.
According to the last official census in Poland in 2011, about 509,000 people declared Silesian as their native language (in census 2002, about 60,000), and in the censuses in Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia, nearly 0.9 million people declared Silesian nationality.
Although the morphological differences between Silesian and Polish have been researched extensively, other grammatical differences have not been studied in depth. One example is that, in contrast with Polish, Silesian retains a separate past conditional (jo bych śe była uobaliyła — "I would have slipped").
Another major difference is in question-forming. In Polish, questions which do not contain interrogative words are formed either by using intonation or the interrogative particle czy. In Silesian, questions which do not contain interrogative words are formed by using intonation (with a markedly different intonation pattern than in Polish) or inversion (e.g. je to na mapie?); there is no interrogative particle.
|Silesian (Steuer spelling)||Polish||Czech||Anglish|
Silesian has many dialects:
- Dialects spoken in areas which are now part of Poland, former Prussian Silesia:
- Dialects spoken on both sides of the Czech–Polish border, former Austrian Silesia:
- Lach dialects spoken in areas which are now part of the Czech Republic, often considered linguistically apart from the ones mentioned above:
Folktung vs. Tung Edit
Grave inscription at Lutheran cemetery in Střítež near Český Těšín. The inscription, which says "Rest in Peace", is in the Cieszyn Silesian dialect.
A pub in Piekary Śląskie with Silesian (Gliwice Silesian dialect) name ("Sideboard", "Buffet") and inscriptions ("Watch out. Go down to us here").
Opinions are divided among linguists regarding whether Silesian is a distinct language, a dialect of Polish, or in the case of Lach, a variety of Czech. The issue can be contentious, because some Silesians consider themselves to be a distinct nationality within Poland. When Czechs, Poles, and Germans each made claims to substantial parts of Silesia as constituting an integral part of their respective nation-states in the 19th and 20th centuries, the language of Slavic speaking Silesians became politicized.
Some, like Óndra Łysohorsky, a poet and author in the Czechoslovakia, saw the Silesians as being their own distinct people, which culminated in his effort to create a literary standard he called the "Lachian language". Silesian inhabitants supporting the cause of each of these ethnic groups had their own robust network of supporters across Silesia's political borders which shifted over the course of the 20th century prior to the large-scale ethnic cleansing in the aftermath of World War II.
Some linguists from Poland such as Jolanta Tambor,[full citation needed] Juan Lajo,[full citation needed] Dr Tomasz Wicherkiewicz[full citation needed] and philosopher Dr hab Jerzy Dadaczyński,[full citation needed] sociologist Dr Elżbieta Anna Sekuła[full citation needed] and sociolinguist Tomasz Kamusella support its status as a language. According to Stanisław Rospond, it is impossible to classify Silesian as a dialect of the contemporary Polish language because he considers it to be descended from the Old Polish language.[original research?] Other Polish linguists, such as Jan Miodek and Edward Polański, do not support its status as a language. Jan Miodek and Dorota Simonides, both of Silesian origin, prefer conservation of the entire range of Silesian dialects rather than standardization. The German linguist Reinhold Olesch was eagerly interested about the "Polish vernaculars" of Upper Silesia and other Slavic varieties such as Kashubian and Polabian.
United States Immigration Commission in 1911 classified it as one of the dialects of Polish.
Most linguists writing in English, such as Alexander M. Schenker, Robert A. Rothstein, and Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley in their respective surveys of Slavic languages, list Silesian as a dialect of Polish, as does Encyclopædia Britannica.
Gerd Hentschel wrote "Das Schlesische ... kann somit ... ohne Zweifel als Dialekt des Polnischen beschrieben werden" ("Silesian ... can thus ... without doubt be described as a dialect of Polish").
In the Czech Republic, disagreement exists concerning the Lach dialects which rose to prominence thanks to Óndra Łysohorsky and his translator Ewald Osers. While some have considered it a separate language, most now view Lach as a dialect of Czech.
Writing Staves Edit
There have been a number of attempts at codifying the language spoken by Slavophones in Silesia. Probably the most well-known was undertaken by Óndra Łysohorsky when codifying the Lachian dialects in creating the Lachian literary language in the early 20th century.
Ślabikŏrzowy szrajbōnek is the relatively new alphabet created by the Pro Loquela Silesiana organization to reflect the sounds of all Silesian dialects. It was approved by Silesian organizations affiliated in Rada Górnośląska. Ubuntu translation is in this alphabet as is the Silesian Wikipedia. It is used in a few books, including the Silesian alphabet book.
- Letters: A, Ã, B, C, Ć, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, Ŏ, Ō, Ô, Õ, P, R, S, Ś, T, U, W, Y, Z, Ź, Ż.
One of the first alphabets created specifically for Silesian was Steuer's Silesian alphabet, created in the Interwar period and used by Feliks Steuer for his poems in Silesian. The alphabet consists of 30 graphemes and eight digraphs:
- Letters: A, B, C, Ć, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, P, R, S, Ś, T, U, Ů, W, Y, Z, Ź, Ż
- Digraphs: Au, Ch, Cz, Dz, Dź, Dż, Rz, Sz
Based on the Steuer alphabet, in 2006 the Phonetic Silesian Alphabet was proposed:
- Letters: A B C Ć Č D E F G H I J K L M N Ń O P R Ř S Ś Š T U Ů W Y Z Ź Ž.
Silesian's phonetic alphabet replaces the digraphs with single letters (Sz with Š, etc.) and does not include the letter Ł, whose sound can be represented phonetically with U. It is therefore the alphabet that contains the fewest letters. Although it is the (phonetically) most logical and hence the most intuitive writing of Silesian, it did not become popular with Silesian organizations, with the argument that it contains too many caron diacritics and hence resembles the Czech alphabet. Large parts of the Silesian Wikipedia, however, are written in Silesian's phonetic alphabet.
Sometimes other alphabets are also used, such as the "Tadzikowy muster" (for the National Dictation Contest of the Silesian language) or the Polish alphabet, but writing in this alphabet is problematic as it does not allow for the differentiation and representation of all Silesian sounds.
Silesian has recently seen an increased use in culture, for example:
- online news and information platform (founded in January 2018): Wachtyrz.eu.
- TV and radio stations (for example: TV Silesia, Sfera TV, TVP Katowice, Slonsky Radio, Radio Piekary, Radio Silesia, Radio Fest);
- music groups (for example: Jan Skrzek, Krzysztof Hanke, Hasiok, Dohtor Miód, FEET);
- theatre (for example: Polterabend in Silesian Theatre);
- film (for example: Grzeszny żywot Franciszka Buły ("The Sinful Life of Franciszek Buła")
- books (for example, the so-called Silesian Bible; poetry: "Myśli ukryte" by Karol Gwóźdź)
- teaching aides (for example, a Silesian basal reader)
Bilingual sign in Katowice (Katowicy): Polish Kwiaciarnia ("florist") and Silesian Blumy i Geszynki ("flowers and gifts"). The latter also exemplifies the Germanisms in Silesian (cf. German Blumen und Geschenke).
In 2003, the National Publishing Company of Silesia (Narodowa Oficyna Śląska) commenced operations. This publisher was founded by the Alliance of the People of the Silesian Nation (Związek Ludności Narodowości Śląskiej) and it prints books about Silesia and books in Silesian language.
In July 2007, the Slavic Silesian language was given the ISO 639-3 code
On 6 September 2007, 23 politicians of the Polish parliament made a statement about a new law to give Silesian the official status of a regional language.
The first official National Dictation Contest of the Silesian language (Ogólnopolskie Dyktando Języka Śląskiego) took place in August 2007. In dictation as many as 10 forms of writing systems and orthography have been accepted.
On 30 January 2008 and in June 2008, two organizations promoting Silesian language were established: Pro Loquela Silesiana and Tôwarzistwo Piastowaniô Ślónskij Môwy "Danga".
On 26 May 2008, the Silesian Wikipedia was founded.
On 30 June 2008 in the edifice of the Silesian Parliament in Katowice, a conference took place on the status of the Silesian language. This conference was a forum for politicians, linguists, representatives of interested organizations and persons who deal with the Silesian language. The conference was titled "Silesian – Still a Dialect or Already a Language?" (Śląsko godka – jeszcze gwara czy jednak już język?).
In 2012, the Ministry of Administration and Digitization registered the Silesian language in Annex 1 to the Regulation on the state register of geographical names; however, in a November 2013 amendment to the regulation, Silesian is not included.