Foreword Edit

As English spells more like French and uses so many words from untheedish sources, it would be hard to believe that English is west theedish tung, let alone a theedish tung in general. Everything from the wordstock to the general spelling system to even the grammar has been affected by un-angle-saxish influence throughout the tung's history such as the Norman Conquest and many of the Viking Invasions. That is why the English tung as we all know it now will have to go through some major changes in order to become the tung it would likely have turned out to be if the Norman Conquest and most of the Viking Invasions did not happen and if it went by analogy of other theedish tungs in terms of wordstock, spelling, and grammar. To begin things off, the name of the tung will be renamed and respelled from "English" to "Æŋolisc" (outspoken as "Angle-ish").


Important Reminder: Edit

(I am aware of the fact that "The Anglish Moot" is about brooking more inborn words and that there is an article about better spellings for English, but the purpose of this article is to propose new ideas on how English should be spelled and the kind of spelling and grammar rules it should follow. Also, this article is intentionally written with some borrowed words to make it easier for readers to understand.)


The New Æŋolisc Runestaff Edit

To keep Æŋolisc readsome for most onlookers, the Latish runestaff will be broked to spell Ængolisc instead to the Runic runestaff, which was brooked to spell Theedish tungs before the Latish runestaff came along. Some letters will be added, while others will be thrown out, and some of the names of the letters will change, going by analogy of other theedish tungs.

Rune Name Outspeech
A a A ah
B b Bei bay
C c Cei chay
D d Dei day
E e Ei ay
F f Ef eff
G g Gie gee
H h Heic haich (already present in British English
I i Ie ee
J j Ja yah
K k Ka kah
L l El ell
M m Em em
N n En en
O o O oh
P p Pei pay
R r Ur outspoken like "er" in better
S s Es es
T t Tei tay
U u Eu/Ew outspoken like "ew" in new
W w Win named after the runic letter "Winn"
Æ æ Æsc Ash
Þ þ Þorn thorn
Ð ð eth
Ŋ ŋ eng


Outspeaking of the midclinkers and midclinker clusters Edit

B, D, G, K, L, M, N, W, Þ, Ð, and Ŋ are all outspoken the same regardless of where they are in a sentence. 

Rs are generally rolled like they were in Old English, though they don't have to be if the speaker chooses not to. For anyone that has swench rolling their tongues, they can make an l like sound instead.

T and P are aspirated at the beginning of words, though when they are within or at the end of a word, they are unaspirated as they were in Old English.

F and S are normally unvoiced, though sometimes, they are voiced like V and Z also as they were in Old English.

C is outspoken like the ch melding in found in Standard English, though when it comes after an S, it is outspoken like the sh melding also found in Standard English. Those rules were again in Old English.

H is outspoken like the h in Standard English in the beginning of words, but is outspoken like the gh melding in Middle English, and the ch in Scots whenever it is within a word, except if it is melded with another word, for byspell, "Lafthelm" (Atmosphere), which is a melding of "Laft" and "Helm". It is also guttural at the end of a word, such as with "þurh".

Sc is outspoken like the Standard English sh. It was spelled and said that way in Old English.

Cg is outspoken like the Standard English j and dge. It was also said that way in Old and Middle English.

Ŋ is outspoken like the Standard English ng combination. For every word in Standard English with an nk melding, there will be an ŋk.

Þ and Ð are outspoken like the Standard English th melding. Thorn was used in Old English. 

(Thorn will only be spelled at the beginning of words, as well as Eth only being spelled in the middle and at the end of a word. That rule is also found in Icelandic. The exceptions to this rule in Æŋolisc is if a word starting with thorn is melded with another word and if it comes after a forefastening. For byspell, "Sumþiŋ" signifies a melding of two words "sum" and "þiŋ".)

SS is outspoken like the ce in “ice" and the German letter ß (called eszett).

(Some outspeakings such as the lk in folk, the kn in knee and knight, and the w in answer are being brought back to Aŋolisc, with knee and knight becoming “knie” and “knijht” to make them more like the Old English words “cneo" and “cniht" respectively and Dutch and German “knie" and German “knecht" as well as answer becoming “ændswer” to make it look more like the Old English word “andswaru”. Answer is also from a base shared with the word “swear”.)


Outspeaking of onesome clipples Edit

A is outspoken like the a in “father”.

E is outspoken like the e in “bed".

I is outspoken like the i in “bit".

O is outspoken like the o in “open".

U is outspoken like the u in “under".

Æ is outspoken like the a in “cat".


Outspeaking of twosome clipples and clipple clusters Edit

AU/AW is outspoken like the ou in “about".  Words with that sound were spelled with an au/aw in Middle English. Some dialects will use au and others will use aw. 

EI is outsoken like the a in “day" as it is in Frisian

EU/EW is outspoken like the ou in “you".  For example, “soon” would be spelled “seun" (or “sewn” in some dialects). Like au/aw, some dialects will use one or the other.

IE is outsoken like the ee in “meet". It is also outspoken and spelled that way in Dutch and German.

II is outspoken like the ee in “meet", but only within words. For example, “meet" would be spelled “miit", but “evil" and “any" would be spelled “iefol" and “ænie" respectively. Ii is also outspoken and spelled that way in Frisian.

IJ is outspoken like the i in “mind". It is also outspoken and spelled that way in Dutch and Frisian.

OA is outspoken like the aw in “dawn". Words with that sound were spelled with an oa in Middle English and the Modern English word “broad".

OE is outspoken like the oo in “book". It goes with the basis of the Dutch and Afrikaans spelling “boek" and the German pronunciation being similar.

OI is pronounced like the oy in “toy".  It is also pronounced and spelled that way in Dutch.

(The only exceptions to the rule to double the vowels within words is if they come before suffixes,  if combined with other words, and before an r.)



The speechcraft of Æŋolisc is similar to the speechcraft of Standard English, though there are several differences that are present. Differences found in Æŋolisc are in bold and italics. Example sentences will appear on the right in parenthesis.

(Note that more of the spellings below are changed. More of the changes themselves will now appear more often.)

(The 'Ne' in NeÞiŋ comes from Old English ne.)

Speechcraftly Falls Edit

1st person Singular Plural Cases Example Sentences
Ij Wie Nominative (Ij luf Þie.)

(Wie luf Jew.)

Mie Us Accusative (Munt ænd get Mie if Þau kæn.) 

(Munt ænd get Us if Je kæn.) 

Mij (Mijn) Aur Genitive (Ij æm Mij Frend wun Gift gifend.) 

(Wie ar Aur Frendas wun Gift gifend.) 

Mie Us Dative (NeÞiŋ markwurðs tew Mie rijht nau.)

(NeÞiŋ markwurðs tew Us rijht nau.)

2nd Person Singular Plural Cases
Þau        Je Nominitive
Þie        Jew Accusative
Þijn        Jewr Genitive
Þie        Jew Dative
3rd Person Singular Plural Cases
Hie/Scie/It Hei Nominitive
Hijn/Hurn/It Hem Accusative
His/Hur/Ites Heir Genitive
Him/Hur/It Hiim Dative
1st Person Dual 2nd Person Dual Cases
Wit Jit Nominitive
Unc Inc Accusative
Uncur Incur Genitive
Unc Inc Dative
Singuar Namewords Plural Cases
Kiŋ Kiŋas Subject
Kiŋ Kiŋas Object
Kiŋes Kiŋases Possessor
Namewords and Determiners Singular Plural Cases Example Sentences
Þa  Sie Nominitive (Þa Kiŋ hæs wun Miitiŋ teudei.)

(Sie Kiŋas hæb wun Miitiŋ teudei.)

Þon Þæt         Accusitive (Þa Kiŋ indrijhts Þon Kiŋliŋ.) (Sie Kiŋas indrijht Þæt Kiŋliŋas.)
Þæs         Þæs        Genitive (Twas Þæs Kiŋes goed Dei.)

(Twas Þæs Kiŋases goed Dei.)

Þæm         Þar Dative (Sie Toimeikuras teu Þæm Kiŋ.)

(Sie Toimeikuras teu Þar Kiŋas.)


As shown above, the parts in bold and italics are new additions to Æŋolisc speechcraft and were once present in Old English. The second person singular, using þau, þie, þijn, and þie are from Early Modern English thou, thee, thine, and thee (Shakespeare's time) and it gives a distinction between the second person singular and plural: þau being used for singular and je for plural (je comes from Old English “ge", which had the same pronunciation as yeh). Hijn and Hurn are also used for the accusative case and hijn comes from Old English “Hine" and while Hurn never existed in English, it is used to follow the analogy of hijn. There is a feature listed above that is not used in Standard English: dual pronouns. As the name suggests, it is used for situations involving two people. This was a grammatical rule in Old English. Another thing from Old English was using “as" for the number of things there are and using “es" to indicate possession. As from the list above, there is a distinct difference between, “Hau menie Kingas ar in þam Stranghald” (castle) and “Þa Kinges Kijnhelm (crown)”. Like German, Æŋolisc will capitalize nouns to better distinguish them from the verb.


Old prefixes and suffixes being brought back to Æŋolisc Edit

In Standard English, the suffixes, -ed and -ing are used for past and present participles respectively. In Æŋolisc, there are some differences. The suffix -ed will become -id, but only when it is pronounced like in “endid". -d (in some dialects -t) will be used in words such as lakd. The -es in “misses” will become -is as -es is used for indicating possession. The suffix -ing will become -end when showing present tense and -ing will be used when forming nouns. For example, “Ij æm fielend goed teudei.” and “Ij hæb wun bæd Fiiliŋ anbaut þis”. This was a grammatical rule from Old English. In the example sentences above, “hæb” is equivalent to “have” in Standard English. “Hæb” comes from Old English “habban” and it is related to German “haben" and Dutch “hebben". The an- prefix is used instead of a- (in some cases), which come from the Old English prefix on-. Also, -en will be used for the infinitive verb, as in the byspell, “teu toaken”. Old English, Modern German and Dutch, and even Middle English have a prefix which denotes the completion or result of an action: ge- (Pronounced in Old English as “ye” not like yee, but the e is pronounced like the e in “get".) (Middle English actually had y-, i-, and 3e-). This trait is brought back in Æŋolisc in the form of “je-". An example of the use of je- in a sentence:

“Ij hæb jewurkd for fijf Staundas.”

That would be different from:

“Ij æm wurkd up tewdei.”

The sentence right above doesn't denote completion as it only says the condition of the person and not signifying the action. 


Genders Edit

Genders are now a part of Æŋolisc speechcraft. The new gender system will go as follows:

Living objects, like things in nature, such as the sun, moon, fruits, vegetables, and trees will be classified as feminine, by analogy of the term "mother nature".

Non-living objects, such as a bed, computer, and house are masculine.

Nouns that aren't physical objects, such as freedom, worthship (honor), and happiness are neuter.

(Exceptions for living objects include certain planets, for example, Tjew (Mars) is masculine, whereas Frei (Venus) is feminine. An exception for non-living objects include a statue of a woman.)

Animals can be masuline or feminine when referring to either males or females, and they can also be neuter when referring to them in a broad or unspecific sense.

Æŋolisc Word Order Edit

Unlike Standard English, Æŋolisc word order is more free and relies less on the exact order of words in a sentence to get its meaning across. The word order in Æŋolisc is similar to that of Early Modern English, as well as Modern German and Dutch. For example in the following sentence:

“Ij fir Þie nat.”

That sentence would be considered grammatically incorrect in Standard English because the word order in English is more strict than it was in Shakespeare's time. The following sentence would also be correct in Æŋolisc because of the grammatical cases used: 

“Ij want tew Þie wun Gift tewdei jifen.


Æŋolisc unmasked Edit

Now that all of the core elements of Æŋolisc has been shown above, here is a full length example of what Æŋolisc looks like: 

(b.m means “before midday” and a.m means “after midday")

(Milkkurd means cheese, it is defined as the curd of milk.)

(There is an "a" in home instead of an "o" because words such as home had a long a in Old English, but it was changed to an "o" because of the Normans.)

Tewdei was wun bisie ænd hæpinsum Dei. Mij Kin, inhaldend Mij Muður, Faður, ænd Bruður ænd Ij jewent tew New Efurwik Sted biesieken. it toek Us twij Staundas tew þer geten ænd sum smal Weiburdin anlaŋ þæm Wei þer was, but Wie jemeid it bij 11:00 b.m. Þa furst Þing Wie did þer was sieend þon mænie tal Bildiŋas þurhaut þæm Lændspæn ænd mænie Bilðas uf Þem Wie toek, inhaldend þa Riclænd Bildiŋ. Æftur þæt, Wie jehedid for wun nirbij Bat tew þæm Friedum Stændbilð geten tew, but biefor Wie gat an, Mij Muður jesed “Wir ar gaend tew þon Bæðrewm broeken. Jit kiip hir ænd get af þis Stewl nat, dew Jit undurstænd?” Wit jenadid Aur Hedas jes ænd þen Þei jewent af. Mij Bruður hæd His Farspiikur aut ænd Ij sed “ Hwat ar Þau dewend an Þijn Farspiikur?” Hie sed “ Wunlie loekend þurh sum Bilðas þæt Ij jetoek anlaŋ þæm Wei Ij æm. Ij sed “Wel, Muður ænd Faður ar kumend bæk, sa Wit scoed get redie tew antew þæm Bat heden”. Twas þa Tijd tew an þon Bat geten ænd twas laŋ nat until Wie jestartid setend seil. Þer was Hur, Þa Friedum Stændbilð, stændend sa hijh up in þæm Laft. Æftur Wie wur dun wið þæm Sijhtsieiŋ, Wie tew wun folklie Fewdhaus jewent in Tijdas Tei ænd jeboaht a Kraudidswijnflesc Klæmpkeik ænd sum Fisdrinkas for Middeimiiliŋ. Hwen Wie gat dun wið Aur Fewd, Wie went tew “Þa Lie Kiŋ Broadwei Saŋplei" sieen ænd Wie trewlie jebielufd it ænd þæs Scapleiures Uptriidiŋas. Wie aut uf þæm Dor hedid ænd Mij Faður jesed “Tis Tijd tew ga Ham nau, did Jit hæb wun greit Tijd hir?” Wit jesed jes ænd Wit jeþæŋkd Þem for Us tew NES teikend, þen Wie jestartid for Aur Wægn hedend. Wie jemeid it bæk Ham bij 6:00 a.m ænd hæd sum Lefmiil, hwic was Eiwort undur Riŋscieldstedisc Milkkurd. Wie went tew Bed bij 9:00 a.m, an þis hijhlie luflie ænd starie Nijht. 

Standard English Translation

Today was a busy and eventful day. My family, including my mother, father, and brother and I went to visit New York City. It took us two hours to get there and there was some small traffic along the way, but we made it by 11:00 a.m. The first thing we did there was seeing the many tall buildings throughout the area and we took many pictures of them, including the Empire State Building. After that, we headed for a boat nearby to get to the Statue of Liberty, but before we got on, My mother said “We are going to use the bathroom. You two keep here and don't get off this chair, do you  understand?” We nodded our heads yes and then they went off. My brother had his phone out and I said “ What are you doing on your phone?” He said “ I am only looking through some pictures that I took along the way. I said “Well, Mother and Father are coming back, so let us get ready to head onto the boat. It was the time to get on the boat and it was not long until we started setting sail. There was her, The Statue of Liberty, standing so high up in the sky. After we were done with the tour, We went to a popular restaurant in Times Square and bought a pepperoni pizza and some sodas for lunch. When we got done our food, we went to see “The Lion King Broadway Musical" and we truly enjoyed it and the actor's performances. We headed out of the door and my father said “It's time to go home now, did you two have a great time here?” We said yes and we thanked them for taking us to NYC, them we started heading for our car. We made it back home by 6:00 pm and had some dinner, which was eggplant Parmesan. We went to bed by 9:00 pm, on this very lovely and starry night.


Afterword Edit

Thank you for reading this leafwrit and I hope that you learned a lot from reading it and seeing the many mightly outcomes of how English could have turned out if history was different to the English tung. Hopefully one day in the future, we could work together to bring heed to this new reconstructed English to others and to learn more about the uniqueness of our English tung.

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