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300px-Hurricane Isabel from ISS

Gale Isabel (2003) as seen from pathbow throughout Outing 7 of the Worldwide Roomth Starship . The eye, eyewall, and hem in rainbands, token of wendring whirlwind in the narrow meaning, are sheer seen in this see from roomth.

A wendring whirlwind is a quickly spinning weatherhood shaped by a low-thringmight middle, a neared low-flat lofthelm flow, strong winds, and a whirl layout of thunderstorms that beget heavy rain or squalls. Hinging on its spot and strength, a wendring whirlwind is called to by otherwise names, inhold hurricane, typhoon, wendring storm, whirlwind storm, wendring lower, and only whirlwind. A hurricane is a wendring whirlwind that happens in the Evensea and northeastern Frithful Sea , and a typhoon happens in the northwestern Frithful Sea; in the south Frithful or Indish Sea, alike storms are called to onefold as "wendring whirlwind" or "stern whirlwind storms".

"Wendring" hint to the earthlore root of these weatherhoods, which shape almost outshut over wendring seas. "Whirlwind" hint to their winds drive in a whirl, whirling wheelshaped their middle sheer eye, with their winds blowing withersunwise in the Northern Ballhalf and sunwise in the Southern Ballhalf. The withering heading of flow is owing to the Coriolis sway. Wendring whirlwinds token shape over broad bodies of bond warm water. They come from their drive through the drying up of water from the sea overlay, which lastly newflowy into clouds and rain when watery wind rises and cools to soaking. This flow root otherness from that of mid-bowheight whirlwind storms, such as nor'easters and Eveland windstorms, which are firefolded firstly by flatwise warmth unlikeness. Wendring whirldwinds are hint between 100 and 2,000 km (62 and 1,243 mi) in bore.

The strong spinning winds of a wendring whirlwind are an outfollow of the orholding of nook twinkling beget by the Earth's spin as wind flows inwards toward the axle of spin. Thereby, they seldom shape within 5° of the evener. Wendring whirlwind are almost unknown in the South Evensea owing to a abiding strong wind shear and a weak Inwendring Meeting Belt. Also, the Highsun easterly flow and belt of lofthelm unsteady that gives rise to whirlwind in the Evensea and Caribbean Sea, along with the Sunriseland rainfall and Western Frithful Warm Pool, are the look of the Northern Ballhalf and Australia.

Seashore belts are namely mightless to the strike of a wendring whirlwind, rather than to inland. The foremost flow root for these storms is warm sea waters. These shapes are therefore token strongest when over or near water, and weaken quickly over land. Seashore loss may be wherefore by strong winds and rain, high waves (owing to winds), storm shore (owing to wind and stern thringmight shift), and the likelihood of spawning twisters. Wendring whirlwind also draw in wind from a wide land—which can be a wide land for the sternest whirlwind—and cluster the rainfall of the water brings in that wind (made up from lofthelm wetness and wetness drying up from water) into a much smaller land. This ongoing newspot of wetness-bearing wind by new wetness-bearing wind after its wetness has fallen as rain, which may wherefore utmost heavy rain and stream flooding up to 25 mi (40 km) from the seashore, far beyond the come up of water that the spot lofthelm holds at any one time.

Though their sway on mennishly befolking is often wreckaging, wendring whirlwind can lighten drought. They also carry heat flow away from the wendring strip and ferry it toward mild bowheight, which may play a foremost playwork in holding landship and world loftlay.

Bodily Setting.[]

Noth Ballhalf Flow


Wendring whirlwind are spots of akin to low thringmight in the windhelm, with the widest thringmight churning happening at low height near the flatwise. On Earth, the thringmights casted at the middle of wendring whirlwinds are among the lowest ever seen at sea flat. The umwerve near the middle of wendring whirlwind is warmer than the hem in at all heights, thus they are look as weatherness warmth.

Wind field

The near-flatwise wind field of a wendring whirlwind is look by wind spinning quickly hem in a middle of flowing while also flowing quickly inwards. At the outer edge of the storm, wind may be nearly soothe; however, owing to the Earth's spin, the air has non-naught fully nook twinkling. As wind flows quickly inward, it begins to spin whirlly (withersunwise in the Northern Ballhalf, and sunwise in the Southern Ballhalf) to orhold of nook twinkling. At an inner halfspan, wind begins to arise to the top of the windhelm. This halfspan is typically likely with the inner halfspan of the eyewall, and has the strongest near- overlay winds of the storm; therefore, it is known as the halfspan of uttermost winds. Once aloft, winds flows away from the storm's middle, begetting a shield of wisps clouds.

The beforehand told forework outfollow in a nearly axles wind field: Wind speeds are low at the middle, rise quickly spinning outwards to the halfspan of uttermost winds, and then sink more stepwise with halfspan to wide halfspan. However, the wind field often show bycoming roomthy and storm sundry owing to the sway of spot forework, such as thunderstorm behaving and flatways flow unsteady. In the standing flow, winds are strongest near the flatwise and sink with height within the windhelm.

Eye and middle.

Spot thunder

Thunderstorm spot in the eyewall of Whirlwind Bansi as seen from the Worldwide Roomth Starship, on Afteryule 12, 2015.

In the middle of a ripe wendring whirlwind, wind sinks rather than rises. For enough strong storm, wind may sink over a layer deep enough to crash cloud flow, thereby creating a sheer "eye". The weather in the eye is meanly lown and free of clouds, although the sea may be sternly stormy. The eye is the meaning looply and is token 19-40 mi (30-65 km) in diameter, though eyes as small as 1.9 mi (3 km) and as wide as 230 mi (370 km) have been seen.

The cloudy outer edge of the eye is called the "eyewall". The eyewall token broaden outward with height, alike a football spurd; this happening is sometimes called to as the "spurd sway". The eyewall is where the highest wind speeds are found, the wind rises most quickly, clouds reach their highest height, and rainfall is the heaviest. The heaviest wind loss happens where a wendring whirlwind's eyewall overtakes the land.

In a weaker storm, the eye may be darked by the middle thick overcast, which is the upper-layer wisps shield that is linkup with a gathered area of strong thunderstorm spot near the middle of a wendring whirlwind.

The eyewall may sundry over time in the form of eyewall newswapping loops, namely in stern wendring whirlwinds. Outer rainbands can layout into an outer ring of thunderstorms that slowly flows inward, which is believed to rob the foremost eyewall of wetness and nook twinkling. When the foremost eyewall weakens, the wendring whirlwind weakens short-lived. The outer eyewall in the end shift the foremost one at the end of the loops, at which time the storm may comeback to its same strength.

Quickly strength.

On sometimes, wendring whirlwind may undergo a forework known as quickly strength, a time in which the highest upholded winds of a wendring whirlwind rises by 30 knots within 24 tides. For quickly strength to happen, marıy onlay must be in spot. Water warmth must be high (near or above 30 °C, 86 F), and water of this warrnth must be enough deep such that waves do not up well cooler waters to the overlay. Wind shear must be low, when wind shear is high, the meeting and flowing in the whirlwind will be broke. Meanly, an witherwhilrwind in the upper layers of the wedball above the storm must be set forth as well-for stern low surface thringmight to grow, wind must be rising quickly in the eyewall of the storm, and an upper- lay witherwhilrwind helps fairway this wind away from the whilrwind handiness


Bore Kind
Less than 2° of bowheight. Much Small
2°-3° of bowheight. Small
3°-6° of bowheight. Middling
6°-8° of bowheight. Big
Over 8° of bowheight. Much Big

There is a sundry of metrics meanly wonted to mete storm bulk. The most shared metrics inhold the halfspan of highest wind, the halfspan of 34-knot wind (i.e. gale strength), the halfspan of outermost nearby evenweight, and the halfspan of fading wind.

On Earth, wendring whirlwind span a wide range of bulks, from 62- 1,243 mi (100-2,000 km) as meted by the halfspan of fading wind. They are broadly an average in the northwest Frithful Sea spot and smallest in the northeastern Frithful Sea spot. If the halfspan of outermost nearby evenweight is less than 2° of bowheight (138 mi (222 km)), then the whirlwind is 'much small' or a 'midget". A halfspan of 3°-6° of bowheight(207-416 mi (333-670 km)) is considered "middling-sized", "Much big" wendring whirlwinds have a halfspan of wider than 8° (552 mi (888 km)). Witnesses say that bulk is only weakly linkup to sundry such as storm strenght (i.e. highest wind speed), the halfspan of uttermost wind, bowheight, and uttermost likelihood strength.

Bulk plays a foremost playwork in shaping loss beget by a storm. All else alike, a wider storm will bequeath a broadly spot for a longer stint of time. Furthermore, a wider near-lay wind field can beget a higher storm shore owing to the binding of longer wind fetch, longer stint, and raise wave setup. The upper flow of strong gale lengthen into the wendbreak of the lofthelm, which at low bowheight is 50,000-60,000 ft (15,000-18,000 meters).


Wendring Whirlwindlore.

All path

Map of all paths of all wendring whirlwind throughout the 1985–2005 time frame. The Frithful Sea west of the Worldwide Day Line sees more wendring whirlwind than any other whereabouts, while there is almost no whilrwind in the southern ballhalf between Highsunland and 160˚W.

Worldwide, wendring whirlwind snell top in late summer, when the otherness between warmth aloft and the sea lay warmth is the greatest. However, each namely spot has its own timely layouts. On a worldwide mete, Threemilkmonth is the least snell month, while Holymonth is the most snell month. Bloodmonth is the only month in which all the wendring whirlwind spots are in time.


In the Northern Evensea, an otherness whirlwind time happens from Midsummermonth 1 to Bloodmonth 30, sharply most from late Weedmonth through Holymonth. The most of shape of the Evensea gale time is Holymonth 10. The Northeast Frithful Sea has a broader stint of time, but in an alike time frame to the Evensea. The Northwest Frithful sees wendring whirlwind year-loop, with a less in Mudmonth and Miremonth and a most in early Holymonth. In the North Indish spot, storms are most common from Eastermonth to Ereyule, with peaks in Threemilkmonth and Bloodmonth. In the Southern Ballhalf, the wendring whirlwind year begins on Meadowmonth 1 and runs all- year-loop inhold the wendring whirlwind times, which run from Bloodmonth 1 until the end of Eastermonth , with most of shape in mid-Mudmonth to early Miremonth.

Seas Begin End Wendring


North Evensea Midsummer 1 Bloodmonth 30 12.1
Eastern Frithful Threemilkmonth 15 Bloodmonth 30 16.1
Western Frithful Afteryule 1 Ereyule 31 26.0
North Indish Afteryule 1 Ereyule 31 4.8
South-West Indish Meadowmonth 1 Midsummer 30 9.3
Australish Bloodmonth 1 Eastermonth 30 11.0
South Frithful Bloodmonth 1 Eastermonth 30 7.1
Full 86.9

Building block.

The building block of wendring whirlwinds is the underthrow of long ongoing seeking and is still not fully understood. While six building blocks show to be overall needed, wendring whirlwinds may sometime form without meeting all of the following onlay. In most onlay, water warmth of at least  79.7 °F (26.5 °C) are needed down to a depth of at least 50 m (50 m); waters of this warmth drive the overlying lofthelm to be unsteady enough to uphold meeting and thunderstorms. For wendring thoroughfare whirlwinds (i.e. Gale Ophelia (2017)) a water warmth of at least 72.5 °F (22.5 °C) has been infold.

Another building block is quickly cooling with height, which leaves the releave of the heat of recloud that feeds a wendring whirlwind. High wetness is needed, namely in the lower-to-mid wedball; when there is a great deal of wetness in the lofthelm, onlay are more heartening for stir to grow. Low come up of wind shear are needed, as high shear is breakly to the storm's flow. Wendring whirlwinds roughly need to form more than 345 mi (555 km) or 5° of the bowheight away from the evener, leaving the Coriolis sway to offdrive winds blowing towards the low thringmight middle and setting up a flowing. Lastly, a shaping wedring whirlwind needs a before beinghood of stirred weather. Wedring whirlwinds will not shape forthwith. Low-bowheight and low-lay westerly wind bursts linkup with the Madden–Julian shift can setting up livelihood onlay for wendring whirlwindlore by begins wedring stirred.


Most wendring whirlwinds shape worldwide thunderstorm spot near the evener, hinted to as the Inwendring Fore, the Inwendring Meeting Belt, or the rainfall trough. Another outstanding root of lofthelm unsteady is found in wendring waves, which help to the growth of about 85% of stern wendring whirlwind in the Evensea and become most of the wendring whirlwind in the Eastern Frithful. The most shapes between 10 and 30 degrees of bowheight away of the evener, and 87% shapes no farther away than 20 degrees north or south. Since the Coriolis sway begins and uphold their spinning, wendring whirlwind seldom shapes or drive within 5 degrees of the evener, where the sway is weakest. However, it is still likely for this weatherhood to shape within this hem as Wendring Storm Vamei and Whirlwind Agni did in 2001 and 2004, each to each.


Setting steering.

Setting steering is the bestride word. Thought, it betokens the flowing of the storm owing to hold up winds and other wider setting onlay, alike to "leaves ferried along by a stream'. Bodily, the winds, or flow field, in the nearness of a wendring whirlwind may be behandled as having two splits: the flow linkup with the storm itself, and the wide- cloud background flow of the setting in which the storm takes onlay. In this way, wendring whirlwind flow may be betokened to first-setup onefold as tobearing of the storm by the spot setting flow. This setting flow is called the "steering flow".

Loftlay, wendring whirlwind are steered foremost westward by the east-to-west trade winds on the evener side of the underwendring ridge-a steadfast high-thringmight spot over the world's underwendring seas. In the wendring North Atlantic and Northeast Frithful Sea, the trade winds steer wendring easterly waves westward from the Highsunland coast toward the Caribbean Sea, North America, and lastly into the central Frithful Sea before the waves dampen out These waves are the following to many wendring whirlwind within this whereabouts. Otherness, in the Indish Sea and Western Frithful in both ballhalf, wendring whirldwindlore is inflow less by wendring easterly waves and more by the timely flow of the Inwendring Meeting Belt and the rainfall trough. Furthermore, wendring whirlwind flow can be inflowed by other weatherhoods, such as out-wendring whirlwind.

Beta Drift

Furthermore to setting steering, a wendring whirlwind will toward to drift slowly poleward and westward, a flow known as "beta drift". This flow is owing to the overberth of a whirl, such as a wendring whirlwind, onto a setting in which the Coriolis sway sundry with bowheights, such as on a ball or beta flycraft. It is inflowed from others by the storm itself, the outcome of feedback between the whirlwind flow of the storm and its setting.

Bodily, the whiriwind flowing of the storm tobearing setting wind poleward east of middle and evener west of the middle. Since wind must onhold its nook twinkling, this flow setting up inflows a whirlwind spin evenerward and westward of the storm middle and an witherwhirlwind spin poleward and eastward of the storm middle. The gather flow of these spin makes to tobearing the storm slowly poleward and westward, This sway happens even if there is naught setting flow.

Fujiwhara sway.

The third split of flow that happens linkup seldom calls for the withwork of many wendwring whirlwinds. When two whirlwinds nearer one another, their middle will begin pathbow whirlwindly about a token at between the two weatherhoods. Hinging on their splitting field and strength, the two whirlwind may onefold pathbow about one another or else may spin into the middle point and gather. When the two whirls are of uneven bulk, the wider whirl will toward to bestride the withwork ,and the smaller whirl will pathbow about it. This happening is called the Fujiwhara sway, after Sakuhei Fujiwhara.

Withwork with the mid-bowheight westlies.

2006 Frithful

Storm path of Typhoon Ioke, showing newbow off the Dawnlandish seashore in 2006.

Though a wendring whirlwind token flows from east to west in the wendring strips, its path may shift poleward and eastward either as it flows west of the underwendring ridge axle or else if it withworks with the mid-bowheights flow, such as the jet stream or an outwendring whirlwind. This flows, call 'newbow", share happens near the western edge of the big seas spot, where the jet stream token has a poleward makebit and ouwendring whirlwinds are share. An example of wendring whirlwind newbow was Typhoon Ioke in 2006.


The landfall of a wendring whirlwind happens when a storm's onlay middle flow over a seashore. Storm onlay may be felt on the seashore and inland tides before landfall; indeed, a wendring whirlwind can launch its strongest winds over land, yet not make landfall. NOAA brooks the term "beward hit" to draw out when a spot(on the left side of the eye) falls within the halfspan of highest winds (or twice that halfspan if on the right side), whether or not the hurricane's eye made landfall.

Shift begets by The Little Boy- Southern shift.

Most wendring whirlwinds shape on the side of the underwendring ridge nearer to the evener, then flows poleward past the ridge axle before rebowing into the main belt of the Westerlies When the underwendring ridge berth shifts owing to The Little Boy, so will the belinked wendring whirlwind path. Spot west of Dawnland and Monfrithland tloward to afanding much fewer Holymonth - Bloodmonth wendring whirlwind strikes throughout The Little Boy and sideless years. Throughout The Little Boy years, the break in the underwendring ridge towards to lie near 130'E which would kindness the Yapanish ilands. Throughout The Little Boy years, Guam's luck of a wendring whirlwind strikes is one-third mcre likely than of the long term middling. The wendring Evensea has a low spot owing to rise upright wind shear across the whereabouts throughout The Little Boy years. Throughout The Little Girl years, the shape of wendnng whirwind, along with the underwendring ridge berthe, shifts westward across the western Frithful Sea, which rises the landfall threat to Midric and much greater intensity in the Philipeland.



Wendring Storm Franklin, a byword of a strongly sheared wendring whilwind in the Evensea gale spot throughout 2005.

Building Block.

A wendring whirlwind can end to have wendring look in sundry otherness ways. One such way is if it flows over land, thus missing it of the warm water it needs to strength itself, quickly losing strength. Most strong storms lose their strength quickly after landfall and become unlinked spot of low-thringmight within a day or two, or become into underwendring whirlwind. There is a likelihood a wendring whirlwind could rebuilt if it handled to get back over open warm water, such as with Gale Ivan. If it leftovers over barrows for even a short time, weakening will speed up. Many storm wounds happen in barrows landscape, when dwindling whirlwind unlock their wetness as heavy rainfall. This rainfall may lead to deadly floods and mudslides, as was the happened with Gale Mitch near Honduras in Wintermonth 1998. Without warm overlay water, the storm cannot outlive.

A wendring whirlwind can ending when it flows over waters onefold below 79.7 °F(26.5 °C). This will drive the storm to lose its wendring look, such as a warm middle with thunderstorms near the middle, and become a leftover low-thringmight spot. These leftover weatherhoods may go for up to sundry days before losing their selfdom. This ending setup is most wonted in the eastern North Frithful Sea. Weakening or ending can happen if it works upright wind shear, begetting the meeting and heat setup to flow away from the middle; this meanly ends growing of a wendring whirlwind. Furthermore, its withwork with the main belt of the Westerlies, by means of mix with a nearby frontal belt, can beget wendring whirlwind to become into underwendring whirlwind. This shift can take 1–3 days. Even after a wendring whirlwind is said to be underwhirld or ending, it can still have wendring storm strength (or sometimes gale/typhoon strength) winds and drop sundry inches of rainfall. In the Frithful Sea and Evensea, such wendring-root whirlwind of higher heightbow can be stormy and may sometimes leftover at gale or typhoon-strength wind speeds when they reach the west seashore of North America. These happening can also affect Evenland, where they are known as Evenland windstorms; Gale Iris's underwendring leftover are a forelay of such a windstorm from 1995. A whirlwind can also mix with another spot of low-thringmight, becoming a larger spot of low-thringmight. This can strengthen the weatherhood, although it may no become be a wendring whirlwind. Worts in the 2000s have given rise to the bedazzles that large a lots of dust dwindle the strength of wendring whirlwind.

Man-made Ending.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Oned Rikes leadership tried to weaken gales through Draft Stormfury by seeding choose storms with silver streamstuff. It was thought that the seeding would make overcooled water in the outer rainbands to freeze, causing the inner eyewall to downfall and thus reducing the winds. The winds of Gale Debbie—a gale dwindle in Draft Stormfury—dropped as much as 31%, but Debbie restrength its strength after each of two seeding forays. In an earlier befall in 1947, fizzle struck when a gale east of Jacksontown, Bloomland quickly shifted its pathway after being seeded, and smashed into Savannah, Georgeland. Because there was so much unwisty about the bearing of these storms, the rikebandish leadership would not laud seeding work unless the gale had a less than 10% luck of making landfall within 48 tides, greatly dwindled the reckon of likely test storms. The goalwork was dropped after it was found out that eyewall newswapping loops happen flowingly in strong gales, casting qualm on the outfollow of the earlier tries. Today, it is known that silver iodide seeding is not likely to have an sway since the a lot of overcooled water in the rainbands of a wendring whirlwind is too low.

Other nearing have been hinted over time, inholding cooling the water under a wendring whirlwind by towing icebarrows into the wendring seas. Other thought range from covering the seas in a stuff that withstrain drying up, dropping large boatloads of ice into the eye at begin to grow this weatherhood(so that the latent heat is soak by the ice, instead become to stir strenght that would feed the upside feedback loop), or blasting the whirlwind apart with kernelweapons. Draft Wisps even inheld throwing dry ice on a whirlwind. These nearing all thole from one flaw above many others: wendring whirlwind are onefold too wide and long-lived for any of the weakening craftly to be working.